The Earth System

The Earth System PDF
Author: Kump
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781428832145
Size: 13.63 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 213
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Understanding The Earth System

Understanding the Earth System PDF
Author: Eckart Ehlers
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642568432
Size: 21.54 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 290
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This volume includes revised versions of most of the presentations made at the International Conference «Understanding the Earth Sys tem: Compartments, Processes and Interactions" held on November 24-26, 1999 in Bonn. The Conference was organized by the German National Committee on Global Change Research as part of the Bonn Science Festival 1999-2000. The Bonn Science Festival (Wissen schaftsfestival Region Bonn) was organized and funded by sfg Strukturforderungsgesellschaft Bonn/Rhein-Siegl Ahrweiler mbH. The generous support for organizing the conference and printing this volume by sfg is gratefully acknowledged. Additional financial and organizational support for separate workshop sessions and publica tions have also been provided by the German Federal Ministry for Science and Research, BMBF and Germany's major research funding agency, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. The editors wish to gratefully acknowledge the help, advice and especially patience of many individuals who have contributed to this volume. The contributions are intended to document the debate on crucial issues of the emerging concept of earth system science and to stimulate the necessary scientific discussion. While every effort has been made on the part of the editors to ensure consistency in termi nology, style and methods of quotation, the variety of contributors has inevitably resulted in certain discrepancies. E. EHLERS Bonn, February 2001 T. KRAFFT Contents Part I Panorama: The Earth System: Analysis from Science and the Humanities Chapter 1 Understanding the Earth System - From Global Change Research to Earth System Science . . . . . . . 3 E. EHLERS and T. KRAFFT Chapter 2 Earth System Analysis and Management. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 17 . . .

Data Assimilation For The Earth System

Data Assimilation for the Earth System PDF
Author: Richard Swinbank
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402015939
Size: 65.92 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 377
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Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute, Acquafredda, Maratea, Italy from 19 May to 1 June 2002

Global Change And The Earth System

Global Change and the Earth System PDF
Author: Will Steffen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540266070
Size: 16.35 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 336
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Global Change and the Earth System describes what is known about the Earth system and the impact of changes caused by humans. It considers the consequences of these changes with respect to the stability of the Earth system and the well-being of humankind; as well as exploring future paths towards Earth-system science in support of global sustainability. The results presented here are based on 10 years of research on global change by many of the world's most eminent scholars. This valuable volume achieves a new level of integration and interdisciplinarity in treating global change.

Thermodynamic Foundations Of The Earth System

Thermodynamic Foundations of the Earth System PDF
Author: Axel Kleidon
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107029945
Size: 67.11 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 404
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An accessible book for graduate students and researchers that describes how the laws of thermodynamics apply to Earth system processes.

Understanding The Earth System

Understanding the Earth System PDF
Author: Sarah E. Cornell
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139560549
Size: 70.68 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages :
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Explaining the what, the how and the why of climate science, this multidisciplinary new book provides a review of research from the last decade, illustrated with cutting-edge data and observations. A key focus is the development of analysis tools that can be used to demonstrate options for mitigating and adapting to increasing climate risks. Emphasis is given to the importance of Earth system feedback mechanisms and the role of the biosphere. The book explains advances in modelling, process understanding and observations, and the development of consistent and coherent studies of past, present and 'possible' climates. This highly illustrated, data-rich book is written by leading scientists involved in QUEST, a major UK-led research programme. It forms a concise and up-to-date reference for academic researchers or students in the fields of climatology, Earth system science and ecology, and also a vital resource for professionals and policymakers working on any aspect of global change.

Fire Phenomena And The Earth System

Fire Phenomena and the Earth System PDF
Author: Claire M. Belcher
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118529561
Size: 22.34 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 352
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Fire plays a key role in Earth system processes. Wildfiresinfluence the carbon cycle and the nutrient balance of our planet,and may even play a role in regulating the oxygen content of ouratmosphere. The evolutionary history of plants has been intimatelytied to fire and this in part explains the distribution of ourecosystems and their ability to withstand the effects of naturalfires today. Fire Phenomena and the Earth System brings together thevarious subdisciplines within fire science to provide a synthesisof our understanding of the role of wildfire in the Earth system.The book shows how knowledge of fire phenomena and the nature ofcombustion of natural fuels can be used to understand modernwildfires, interpret fire events in the geological record and tounderstand the role of fire in a variety of Earth system processes.By bringing together chapters written by leading internationalresearchers from a range of geological, environmental, chemical andengineering disciplines, the book will stimulate the exchange ofideas and knowledge across these subject areas. Fire Phenomenaand the Earth System provides a truly interdisciplinary guidethat can inform us about Earth’s past, present andbeyond. Readership: Advanced students and researchers across awide range of earth, environmental and life sciences, includingbiogeochemistry, paleoclimatology, atmospheric science,palaeontology and paleoecology, combustion science, ecology andforestry.

Ocean In The Earth System

Ocean in the Earth System PDF
Author: Patrick Prouzet
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1848217013
Size: 31.17 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 290
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Complexity is an intrinsic property of natural systems. In the oceanic system, it is linked to many interactions with the atmosphere, geosphere and biosphere with which it exchanges energy and matter. Complexity of the ocean system has, at different spatial and temporal scales, hydrodynamic mechanisms of these exchanges and dynamics of elements and compounds, they are involved in biogeochemical cycles or used as tracers. By its pedagogical approach, it defines the terms, methods, techniques and analytical tools used. Then, it analyzes the consequences of climate change, future projections, human impact and the concept introduced with planktonic pelagic ecosystem component.

Observation Of The Earth System From Space

Observation of the Earth System from Space PDF
Author: Jakob Flury
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540295224
Size: 32.20 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 494
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In the recent years, space-based observation methods have led to a subst- tially improved understanding of Earth system. Geodesy and geophysics are contributing to this development by measuring the temporal and spatial va- ations of the Earth’s shape, gravity ?eld, and magnetic ?eld, as well as at- sphere density. In the frame of the GermanR&D programmeGEOTECHNO- LOGIEN,researchprojectshavebeen launchedin2002relatedto the satellite missions CHAMP, GRACE and ESA’s planned mission GOCE, to comp- mentary terrestrial and airborne sensor systems and to consistent and stable high-precision global reference systems for satellite and other techniques. In the initial 3-year phase of the research programme (2002-2004), new gravity ?eld models have been computed from CHAMP and GRACE data which outperform previous models in accuracy by up to two orders of m- nitude for the long and medium wavelengths. A special highlight is the - termination of seasonal gravity variations caused by changes in continental water masses. For GOCE, to be launched in 2006, new gravity ?eld analysis methods are under development and integrated into the ESA processing s- tem. 200,000 GPS radio occultation pro?les, observed by CHAMP, have been processed on an operational basis. They represent new and excellent inf- mation on atmospheric refractivity, temperature and water vapor. These new developments require geodetic space techniques (such as VLBI, SLR, LLR, GPS) to be combined and synchronized as if being one global instrument.

Fractal Behaviour Of The Earth System

Fractal Behaviour of the Earth System PDF
Author: V.P. Dimri
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540265368
Size: 20.25 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 208
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It is with pleasure that I write the foreword to this excellent book. A wide range of observations in geology and solid-earth geophysics can be - plained in terms of fractal distributions. In this volume a collection of - pers considers the fractal behavior of the Earth's continental crust. The book begins with an excellent introductory chapter by the editor Dr. V.P. Dimri. Surface gravity anomalies are known to exhibit power-law spectral behavior under a wide range of conditions and scales. This is self-affine fractal behavior. Explanations of this behavior remain controversial. In chapter 2 V.P. Dimri and R.P. Srivastava model this behavior using Voronoi tessellations. Another approach to understanding the structure of the continental crust is to use electromagnetic induction experiments. Again the results often exhibit power law spectral behavior. In chapter 3 K. Bahr uses a fractal based random resister network model to explain the observations. Other examples of power-law spectral observations come from a wide range of well logs using various logging tools. In chapter 4 M. Fedi, D. Fiore, and M. La Manna utilize multifractal models to explain the behavior of well logs from the main KTB borehole in Germany. In chapter 5 V.V. Surkov and H. Tanaka model the electrokinetic currents that may be as- ciated with seismic electric signals using a fractal porous media. In chapter 6 M. Pervukhina, Y. Kuwahara, and H. Ito use fractal n- works to correlate the elastic and electrical properties of porous media.

Global Regional Linkages In The Earth System

Global Regional Linkages in the Earth System PDF
Author: Peter D. Tyson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642562280
Size: 40.94 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 198
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Global environmental change occupies a central niche in the pantheon of modern sciences. There is an urgent need to know and understand the way in which global biogeochemical cycles have changed over different time scales in the past and are likely to do so in the future. Equally important, it is necessary to determine the extent to which natural variability and that induce by anthropogenic activities are bringing about change. A number of international co-operative scientific programmes ad dress these issues. Chief among them are the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and the Inter national Human Dimensions Programme (IHDP) for global change. This book is one of a series of IGBP syntheses drawing together findings in global environmental change over the past decade or so. One focus of IGBP activities is the System for Analysis, Research and Training (START). Co-sponsored by the WCRP and IHDP, START establishes regional research networks for global change science in developing countries, stimulates and carries out global change research in developing regions of the world, and builds capacity to undertake such research at personal, institutional and regional levels. Several regional global change networks have been established, and much regional research has been accomplished in the last five years or so. In this book, work relating to four of the older START regions, Southern Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia, will be used as case studies to illustrate regional-global linkages in Earth System Science.

The Application Of Neural Networks In The Earth System Sciences

The Application of Neural Networks in the Earth System Sciences PDF
Author: Vladimir M. Krasnopolsky
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400760736
Size: 39.91 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 189
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This book brings together a representative set of Earth System Science (ESS) applications of the neural network (NN) technique. It examines a progression of atmospheric and oceanic problems, which, from the mathematical point of view, can be formulated as complex, multidimensional, and nonlinear mappings. It is shown that these problems can be solved utilizing a particular type of NN – the multilayer perceptron (MLP). This type of NN applications covers the majority of NN applications developed in ESSs such as meteorology, oceanography, atmospheric and oceanic satellite remote sensing, numerical weather prediction, and climate studies. The major properties of the mappings and MLP NNs are formulated and discussed. Also, the book presents basic background for each introduced application and provides an extensive set of references. “This is an excellent book to learn how to apply artificial neural network methods to earth system sciences. The author, Dr. Vladimir Krasnopolsky, is a universally recognized master in this field. With his vast knowledge and experience, he carefully guides the reader through a broad variety of problems found in the earth system sciences where neural network methods can be applied fruitfully. (...) The broad range of topics covered in this book ensures that researchers/graduate students from many fields (...) will find it an invaluable guide to neural network methods.” (Prof. William W. Hsieh, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada) “Vladimir Krasnopolsky has been the “founding father” of applying computation intelligence methods to environmental science; (...) Dr. Krasnopolsky has created a masterful exposition of a young, yet maturing field that promises to advance a deeper understanding of best modeling practices in environmental science.” (Dr. Sue Ellen Haupt, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, USA) “Vladimir Krasnopolsky has written an important and wonderful book on applications of neural networks to replace complex and expensive computational algorithms within Earth System Science models. He is uniquely qualified to write this book, since he has been a true pioneer with regard to many of these applications. (...) Many other examples of creative emulations will inspire not just readers interested in the Earth Sciences, but any other modeling practitioner (...) to address both theoretical and practical complex problems that may (or will!) arise in a complex system." ” (Prof. Eugenia Kalnay, University of Maryland, USA)

Introduction To Modern Fortran For The Earth System Sciences

Introduction to Modern Fortran for the Earth System Sciences PDF
Author: Dragos B. Chirila
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642370098
Size: 71.61 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 250
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This work provides a short "getting started" guide to Fortran 90/95. The main target audience consists of newcomers to the field of numerical computation within Earth system sciences (students, researchers or scientific programmers). Furthermore, readers accustomed to other programming languages may also benefit from this work, by discovering how some programming techniques they are familiar with map to Fortran 95. The main goal is to enable readers to quickly start using Fortran 95 for writing useful programs. It also introduces a gradual discussion of Input/Output facilities relevant for Earth system sciences, from the simplest ones to the more advanced netCDF library (which has become a de facto standard for handling the massive datasets used within Earth system sciences). While related works already treat these disciplines separately (each often providing much more information than needed by the beginning practitioner), the reader finds in this book a shorter guide which links them. Compared to other books, this work provides a much more compact view of the language, while also placing the language-elements in a more applied setting, by providing examples related to numerical computing and more advanced Input/Output facilities for Earth system sciences. Naturally, the coverage of the programming language is relatively shallow, since many details are skipped. However, many of these details can be learned gradually by the practitioner, after getting an overview and some practice with the language through this book.