The Bee Genera Of North And Central America Hymenoptera Apoidea

The Bee Genera of North and Central America  Hymenoptera Apoidea  PDF
Author: Charles Duncan Michener
Publisher: Smithsonian Inst Press
ISBN:
Size: 25.16 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 209
View: 839

Get Book

"The first identification key to cover all bees in the whole of the New World north of the equator. Parallel columns of English and Spanish text, and 500 drawing and photographs detail the distinguishing features of 169 genera and provide additional information such as range, number of species and subgenera, and references to any revisionist studies. Includes a guide to using the key. Field tested. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or." -- PUBLISHER.

Pollen And Pollination

Pollen and Pollination PDF
Author: Amots Dafni
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3709163064
Size: 33.59 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 341
View: 4600

Get Book

Pollen studies make important contributions nature, into three main themes: pollen struc to our knowledge in many interdisciplinary ture and constituents, pollen evolutionary arenas. Pollen identification is widely used in ecology and the pollen-pollinator interface. reconstruction of, e.g., vegetation, the climate Several papers overlap somewhat or are of the past, and plant biodiversity. Studies perhaps even somewhat contradictory and concerning pollen structure, size and form are reflect the author's own ideas and experience. key issues in basic sciences, as, e.g., plant Some could be understood more deeply by taxonomy and evolution, but are also of consulting other closely related articles. The importance in applied fields as, e.g., plant reader is strongly referred to the respective breeding. In pollination studies pollen is literature list of each article. generally used specifically to identify food ofanther ripening and pollen The last steps development (Pacini) and the mature pollen sources of visitors and to reconstruct their foraging routes. Fewer have been devoted to wall structure (Hesse) are key factors to pollen collection mechanisms and to the struc understand pollen dispersal mechanisms in ture and content of pollen in relation to its biotic pollination (Stroo) as well as abiotic pollination (Ackerman). Pollen size, shape, function.

Pollination Services To Agriculture

Pollination Services to Agriculture PDF
Author: Barbara Gemmill-Herren
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317445678
Size: 49.28 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 292
View: 4285

Get Book

It is only recently that the immense economic value of pollination to agriculture has been appreciated. At the same time, the alarming collapse in populations of bees and other pollinators has highlighted the urgency of addressing this issue. This book focuses on the specific measures and practices that the emerging science of pollination ecology is identifying to conserve and promote animal pollinators in agroecosystems. It reviews the expanding knowledge base on pollination services, providing evidence to document the status, trends and importance of pollinators to sustainable agricultural production. It provides practical and specific measures that land managers can undertake to ensure that agroecosystems are supportive and friendly to pollinators. It draws on the Global Pollination Project, supported by UNEP/GEF and implemented by FAO and seven partner countries (Brazil, Ghana, India, Kenya, Nepal, Pakistan and South Africa), which serve to provide "lessons from the field".

Our Native Bees

Our Native Bees PDF
Author: Paige Embry
Publisher: Timber Press
ISBN: 1604697695
Size: 24.35 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Nature
Languages : en
Pages : 224
View: 2362

Get Book

A New York Times 2018 Holiday Gift Selection Honey bees get all the press, but the fascinating story of North America’s native bees—an endangered species essential to our ecosystems and food supplies—is just as crucial. Through interviews with farmers, gardeners, scientists, and bee experts, Our Native Bees explores the importance of native bees and focuses on why they play a key role in gardening and agriculture. The people and stories are compelling: Paige Embry goes on a bee hunt with the world expert on the likely extinct Franklin’s bumble bee, raises blue orchard bees in her refrigerator, and learns about an organization that turns the out-of-play areas in golf courses into pollinator habitats. Our Native Bees is a fascinating, must-read for fans of natural history and science and anyone curious about bees.

Developmental Plasticity And Evolution

Developmental Plasticity and Evolution PDF
Author: Mary Jane West-Eberhard
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199880735
Size: 68.11 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 816
View: 5366

Get Book

The first comprehensive synthesis on development and evolution: it applies to all aspects of development, at all levels of organization and in all organisms, taking advantage of modern findings on behavior, genetics, endocrinology, molecular biology, evolutionary theory and phylogenetics to show the connections between developmental mechanisms and evolutionary change. This book solves key problems that have impeded a definitive synthesis in the past. It uses new concepts and specific examples to show how to relate environmentally sensitive development to the genetic theory of adaptive evolution and to explain major patterns of change. In this book development includes not only embryology and the ontogeny of morphology, sometimes portrayed inadequately as governed by "regulatory genes," but also behavioral development and physiological adaptation, where plasticity is mediated by genetically complex mechanisms like hormones and learning. The book shows how the universal qualities of phenotypes--modular organization and plasticity--facilitate both integration and change. Here you will learn why it is wrong to describe organisms as genetically programmed; why environmental induction is likely to be more important in evolution than random mutation; and why it is crucial to consider both selection and developmental mechanism in explanations of adaptive evolution. This book satisfies the need for a truly general book on development, plasticity and evolution that applies to living organisms in all of their life stages and environments. Using an immense compendium of examples on many kinds of organisms, from viruses and bacteria to higher plants and animals, it shows how the phenotype is reorganized during evolution to produce novelties, and how alternative phenotypes occupy a pivotal role as a phase of evolution that fosters diversification and speeds change. The arguments of this book call for a new view of the major themes of evolutionary biology, as shown in chapters on gradualism, homology, environmental induction, speciation, radiation, macroevolution, punctuation, and the maintenance of sex. No other treatment of development and evolution since Darwin's offers such a comprehensive and critical discussion of the relevant issues. Developmental Plasticity and Evolution is designed for biologists interested in the development and evolution of behavior, life-history patterns, ecology, physiology, morphology and speciation. It will also appeal to evolutionary paleontologists, anthropologists, psychologists, and teachers of general biology.

Classification Of The Bee Tribe Augochlorini Hymenoptera Halictidae

Classification of the Bee Tribe Augochlorini  Hymenoptera Halictidae  PDF
Author: Michael S. Engel
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 19.99 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Amber fossils
Languages : en
Pages : 89
View: 5148

Get Book

The halictid bee tribe Augochlorini is revised at the level of genus and subgenus. Forty-one genera and subgenera are recognized with two being extinct. New subgenera of Augochlora, Electraugochlora, and of Oligochlora, Soliapis, are described for new fossils from Tertiary amber of the Dominican Republic. Complete taxonomic histories are given along with information on revisions at the species level, biological studies, and general distribution for each family- and genus-group taxon. The following subgenera are newly synonymized: Aethechlora new junior subjective synonym of Oxystoglossella, Mycterochlora new junior subjective synonym of Augochlora, Vachalius new junior subjective synonym of Neocorynurella, and Neocorynuroides new junior subjective synonym of Neocorynura. The group Glyptochlora is resurrected from synonymy as a valid subgenus of Augochloropsis. The males of Chlerogella and Micrommation are described for the first time. A key to the genera and subgenera of the tribe is presented along with a key to the species of the rare Augochloropsis (Glyptochlora). Suprageneric relationships in the tribe are explored cladistically. Characters of adult external morphology (72 characters) and ethology (12 characters) are coded for all recognized augochlorine genera as well as outgroups from the Halictini, Nomioidini, and Nomiinae. Results of the cladistic analysis are remarkably resolved but not very robust. The cladogram is summarized and infratribal groups defined. Most notably, the tribe is divided into two monophyletic subtribes: the Corynurina (new subtribe), containing the southern South American genera Corynura, Halictillus, Rhectomia, and Rhinocorynura; and the nominate subtribe, Augochlorina. Implications of the cladistic analysis on diversification in the Augochlorini and evolutionary patterns within the tribe are discussed. New distribution records are given for three species which extend the known ranges of their respective genera. Augochlora essequibensis is a new junior subjective synonym of A. nigrocyanea while A. cladopyga, A. seminigra, Augochlorella bidentata, Halictus caucasicus, H. cerasis, H. chrysaspis, H. myrrhites, H. simotes, and Pereirapis rhizophila are all new junior subjective synonyms of P. semiaurata. Megalopta intermedia, Augochlora nitidior, Augochlorella eusticta, Augochlorodes clementis, and Augochloropsis scabriceps are all recognized as nomina nuda. Vachalius cosmetor, from Colombia and Venezuela, is transferred to Neocorynurella while Corynura biciliata, from Costa Rica, is recognized as a species of Halictini and is transferred to the genus Lasioglossum (Evylaeus) (new combinations). Four fossil and recent species new to science are described as Augochlora (Electraugochlora) leptoloba (fossil), Augochlora (Oxystoglossella) rightmyerae (extant), Oligochlora (Soliapis) rozeni (fossil), and Pseudaugoehlora pulchra (extant).

Phylogeny Classification And Evolutionary Ethology Of The Bee Tribe Augochlorini Hymenoptera Halictidae

Phylogeny  Classification and Evolutionary Ethology of the Bee Tribe Augochlorini  Hymenoptera Halictidae  PDF
Author: Michael Scott Engel
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 33.36 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 612
View: 3727

Get Book

A genus-level cladistic analysis of the tribe is undertaken utilizing 72 characters of adult external morphology and 12 of behavior. The resulting cladogram is compared with previous hypotheses of augochlorine relationships and a revised suprageneric classification of the Augochlorini is proposed. Character transformations at each node are discussed as well as general implications of the overall topology.

Bulletin

Bulletin PDF
Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 59.16 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Natural history
Languages : en
Pages :
View: 7690

Get Book



Bulletin Entomologie

Bulletin  Entomologie PDF
Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 58.45 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Entomology
Languages : en
Pages :
View: 711

Get Book