The Atmosphere

The Atmosphere PDF
Author: William Welch Kellogg
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 71.78 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Air
Languages : en
Pages : 154
View: 6130

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The Atmosphere

The Atmosphere PDF
Author: Paul Palmer
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198722036
Size: 27.82 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 144
View: 608

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The atmosphere is the thin, diffuse fluid that envelops the Earth's surface. Despite its apparent fragility, the existence of this fluid is vital for human and other life on Earth. In this Very Short Introduction, Paul Palmer describes the physical and chemical characteristics of different layers in the atmosphere, and shows how the interactions where the atmosphere is in contact with land, ocean, and ice affect its observed physical and chemical properties. He also looks at how movement in the atmosphere, driven by heat from the sun, transports heat from lower latitudes to higher latitudes, and is a fundamental feature of the general circulation in the atmosphere. Finally, Palmer presents an overview of the types of measurements used to understand different parts of the atmosphere, and identifies the future challenges for atmospheric scientists. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Radiative Transfer In The Atmosphere And Ocean

Radiative Transfer in the Atmosphere and Ocean PDF
Author: Knut Stamnes
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108210422
Size: 32.28 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages :
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This new and completely updated edition gives a detailed description of radiative transfer processes at a level accessible to advanced students. The volume gives the reader a basic understanding of global warming and enhanced levels of harmful ultraviolet radiation caused by ozone depletion. It teaches the basic physics of absorption, scattering and emission processes in turbid media, such as the atmosphere and ocean, using simple semi-classical models. The radiative transfer equation, including multiple scattering, is formulated and solved for several prototype problems, using both simple approximate and accurate numerical methods. In addition, the reader has access to a powerful, state-of-the-art computational code for simulating radiative transfer processes in coupled atmosphere-water systems including snow and ice. This computational code can be regarded as a powerful educational aid, but also as a research tool that can be applied to solve a variety of research problems in environmental sciences.

Non Lte Radiative Transfer In The Atmosphere

Non LTE Radiative Transfer in the Atmosphere PDF
Author: Manuel López-Puertas
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9789812811493
Size: 43.68 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 506
View: 4375

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Ch. 1. Introduction and overview. 1.1. General introduction. 1.2. Basic properties of the Earth's atmosphere. 1.3. What is LTE? 1.4. Non-LTE situations. 1.5. The importance of non-LTE. 1.6. Some historical background. 1.7. Non-LTE models. 1.8. Experimental studies of non-LTE. 1.9. Non-LTE in planetary atmospheres. 1.10. References and further reading -- ch. 2. Molecular spectra. 2.1. Introduction. 2.2. Energy levels in diatomic molecules. 2.3. Energy levels in polyatomic molecules. 2.4. Transitions and spectral bands. 2.5. Properties of individual vibration-rotation lines. 2.6. Interactions between energy levels. 2.7. References and further reading -- ch. 3. Basic atmospheric radiative transfer. 3.1. Introduction. 3.2. Properties of radiation. 3.3. The radiative transfer equation. 3.4. The formal solution of the radiative transfer equation. 3.5. Thermodynamic equilibrium and local thermodynamic equilibrium. 3.6. The source function in non-LTE. 3.7. Non-LTE situations. 3.8. References and further reading -- ch. 4. Solutions to the radiative transfer equation in LTE. 4.1. Introduction. 4.2. Integration of the radiative transfer equation over height. 4.3. Integration of the radiative transfer equation over frequency. 4.4. Integration of the radiative transfer equation over solid angle. 4.5. References and further reading -- ch. 5. Solutions to the radiative transfer equation in non-LTE. 5.1. Introduction. 5.2. Simple solutions for radiative transfer under non-LTE. 5.3. The full solution of the radiative transfer equation in non-LTE. 5.4. Integration of the RTE in non-LTE. 5.5. Intercomparison of non-LTE codes. 5.6. Parameterizations of the non-LTE cooling rate. 5.7. The Curtis matrix method. 5.8. References and further reading -- ch. 6. Non-LTE modelling of the Earth's atmosphere I: CO2. 6.1. Introduction. 6.2. Useful approximations. 6.3. Carbon dioxide, CO2. 6.4. References and further reading -- ch. 7. Non-LTE modelling of the Earth's atmosphere II: Other infrared emitters. 7.1. Introduction. 7.2. Carbon monoxide, CO. 7.3. Ozone, O3. 7.4. Water vapour, H2O. 7.5. Methane, CH4. 7.6. Nitric oxide, NO. 7.7. Nitrogen dioxide, NO2. 7.8. Nitrous oxide, N2O. 7.9. Nitric acid, HNO3. 7.10. Hydroxyl radical, OH. 7.11. Molecular oxygen atmospheric infrared bands. 7.12. Hydrogen chloride, HC1, and hydrogen fluoride, HF. 7.13. NO+. 7.14. Atomic Oxygen, O (3P), at 63[symbol]m. 7.15. References and further reading -- ch. 8. Remote sensing of the non-LTE atmosphere. 8.1. Introduction. 8.2. The analysis of emission measurements. 8.3. Observations of carbon dioxide in emission. 8.4. Observations of ozone in emission. 8.5. Observations of water vapour in emission. 8.6. Observations of carbon monoxide in emission. 8.7. Observations of nitric oxide in emission. 8.8. Observations of other infrared emissions. 8.9. Rotational non-LTE. 8.10. Absorption measurements. 8.11. Simulated limb emission spectra at high resolution. 8.12. Simulated Nadir emission spectra at high resolution. 8.13. Non-LTE retrieval schemes. 8.14. References and further reading -- ch. 9. Cooling and heating rates. 9.1. Introduction. 9.2. CO2 15 f[symbol]m cooling. 9.3. O3 9.6[symbol]xm cooling. 9.4. H2O 6.3[symbol]m cooling. 9.5. NO 5.3[symbol]m cooling. 9.6. O(3Pi) 63[symbol]m cooling. 9.7. Summary of cooling rates. 9.8. CO2 solar heating. 9.9. References and further reading -- ch. 10. Non-LTE in planetary atmospheres. 10.1. Introduction. 10.2. The terrestrial planets: Mars and Venus. 10.3. A non-LTE model for the Martian and Venusian atmospheres. 10.4. Mars. 10.5. Venus. 10.6. Outer planets. 10.7. Titan. 10.8. Comets. 10.9. References and further reading.

A Field Guide To The Atmosphere

A Field Guide to the Atmosphere PDF
Author: Vincent J. Schaefer
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
ISBN: 9780395976319
Size: 14.90 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Nature
Languages : en
Pages : 384
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Photographs show phenomena of the atmosphere, describing types of atmospheric particles, rainbows, clouds, and precipitation.

The Gases Of The Atmosphere

The Gases of the Atmosphere PDF
Author: William Ramsay
Publisher: Good Press
ISBN:
Size: 31.19 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 966
View: 4078

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"The Gases of the Atmosphere" by William Ramsay. Published by Good Press. Good Press publishes a wide range of titles that encompasses every genre. From well-known classics & literary fiction and non-fiction to forgotten−or yet undiscovered gems−of world literature, we issue the books that need to be read. Each Good Press edition has been meticulously edited and formatted to boost readability for all e-readers and devices. Our goal is to produce eBooks that are user-friendly and accessible to everyone in a high-quality digital format.

The Atmosphere

The Atmosphere PDF
Author: Zareh MacPherson Artinian
Publisher: Benchmark Education Company
ISBN: 1935473220
Size: 55.71 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Atmosphere
Languages : en
Pages : 48
View: 6427

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A look at the atmosphere, its composition, and the natural and human processes that effect it.

The Atmosphere

The Atmosphere PDF
Author: American Technical Society
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 43.45 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Meteorology in aeronautics
Languages : en
Pages : 14
View: 2568

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The Atmosphere

The Atmosphere PDF
Author: Camille Flammarion
Publisher: New York : Harper
ISBN:
Size: 43.26 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Atmosphere
Languages : en
Pages : 453
View: 727

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