Logic Sets And The Techniques Of Mathematical Proofs

Logic  Sets and the Techniques of Mathematical Proofs PDF
Author: Brahima Mbodje Ph. D.
Publisher: AuthorHouse
ISBN: 1463429673
Size: 14.33 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 356
View: 1391

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As its title indicates, this book is about logic, sets and mathematical proofs. It is a careful, patient and rigorous introduction for readers with very limited mathematical maturity. It teaches the reader not only how to read a mathematical proof, but also how to write one. To achieve this, we carefully lay out all the various proof methods encountered in mathematical discourse, give their logical justifications, and apply them to the study of topics [such as real numbers, relations, functions, sequences, fine sets, infinite sets, countable sets, uncountable sets and transfinite numbers] whose mastery is important for anyone contemplating advanced studies in mathematics. The book is completely self-contained; since the prerequisites for reading it are only a sound background in high school algebra. Though this book is meant to be a companion specifically for senior high school pupils and college undergraduate students, it will also be of immense value to anyone interested in acquiring the tools and way of thinking of the mathematician.

Understanding Mathematical Proof

Understanding Mathematical Proof PDF
Author: John Taylor
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466514914
Size: 40.60 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 414
View: 669

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The notion of proof is central to mathematics yet it is one of the most difficult aspects of the subject to teach and master. In particular, undergraduate mathematics students often experience difficulties in understanding and constructing proofs. Understanding Mathematical Proof describes the nature of mathematical proof, explores the various techniques that mathematicians adopt to prove their results, and offers advice and strategies for constructing proofs. It will improve students’ ability to understand proofs and construct correct proofs of their own. The first chapter of the text introduces the kind of reasoning that mathematicians use when writing their proofs and gives some example proofs to set the scene. The book then describes basic logic to enable an understanding of the structure of both individual mathematical statements and whole mathematical proofs. It also explains the notions of sets and functions and dissects several proofs with a view to exposing some of the underlying features common to most mathematical proofs. The remainder of the book delves further into different types of proof, including direct proof, proof using contrapositive, proof by contradiction, and mathematical induction. The authors also discuss existence and uniqueness proofs and the role of counter examples.

Metamath A Computer Language For Mathematical Proofs

Metamath  A Computer Language for Mathematical Proofs PDF
Author: Norman Megill
Publisher: Lulu.com
ISBN: 0359702236
Size: 63.44 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 248
View: 3895

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Metamath is a computer language and an associated computer program for archiving, verifying, and studying mathematical proofs. The Metamath language is simple and robust, with an almost total absence of hard-wired syntax, and we believe that it provides about the simplest possible framework that allows essentially all of mathematics to be expressed with absolute rigor. While simple, it is also powerful; the Metamath Proof Explorer (MPE) database has over 23,000 proven theorems and is one of the top systems in the ?Formalizing 100 Theorems? challenge. This book explains the Metamath language and program, with specific emphasis on the fundamentals of the MPE database.

Mathematical Proofs

Mathematical Proofs PDF
Author: Gary Chartrand
Publisher: Addison-Wesley Longman
ISBN:
Size: 76.55 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 365
View: 3225

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Mathematical Proofs: A Transition to Advanced Mathematics, 2/e, prepares students for the more abstract mathematics courses that follow calculus. This text introduces students to proof techniques and writing proofs of their own. As such, it is an introduction to the mathematics enterprise, providing solid introductions to relations, functions, and cardinalities of sets. KEY TOPICS: Communicating Mathematics, Sets, Logic, Direct Proof and Proof by Contrapositive, More on Direct Proof and Proof by Contrapositive, Existence and Proof by Contradiction, Mathematical Induction, Prove or Disprove, Equivalence Relations, Functions, Cardinalities of Sets, Proofs in Number Theory, Proofs in Calculus, Proofs in Group Theory. MARKET: For all readers interested in advanced mathematics and logic.

An Introduction To Mathematical Proofs

An Introduction to Mathematical Proofs PDF
Author: Nicholas A. Loehr
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1000709809
Size: 77.47 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 396
View: 6309

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An Introduction to Mathematical Proofs presents fundamental material on logic, proof methods, set theory, number theory, relations, functions, cardinality, and the real number system. The text uses a methodical, detailed, and highly structured approach to proof techniques and related topics. No prerequisites are needed beyond high-school algebra. New material is presented in small chunks that are easy for beginners to digest. The author offers a friendly style without sacrificing mathematical rigor. Ideas are developed through motivating examples, precise definitions, carefully stated theorems, clear proofs, and a continual review of preceding topics. Features Study aids including section summaries and over 1100 exercises Careful coverage of individual proof-writing skills Proof annotations and structural outlines clarify tricky steps in proofs Thorough treatment of multiple quantifiers and their role in proofs Unified explanation of recursive definitions and induction proofs, with applications to greatest common divisors and prime factorizations About the Author: Nicholas A. Loehr is an associate professor of mathematics at Virginia Technical University. He has taught at College of William and Mary, United States Naval Academy, and University of Pennsylvania. He has won many teaching awards at three different schools. He has published over 50 journal articles. He also authored three other books for CRC Press, including Combinatorics, Second Edition, and Advanced Linear Algebra.

Introduction To Mathematical Proofs

Introduction to Mathematical Proofs PDF
Author: Charles Roberts
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420069563
Size: 63.71 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 433
View: 1633

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Shows How to Read & Write Mathematical Proofs Ideal Foundation for More Advanced Mathematics Courses Introduction to Mathematical Proofs: A Transition facilitates a smooth transition from courses designed to develop computational skills and problem solving abilities to courses that emphasize theorem proving. It helps students develop the skills necessary to write clear, correct, and concise proofs. Unlike similar textbooks, this one begins with logic since it is the underlying language of mathematics and the basis of reasoned arguments. The text then discusses deductive mathematical systems and the systems of natural numbers, integers, rational numbers, and real numbers. It also covers elementary topics in set theory, explores various properties of relations and functions, and proves several theorems using induction. The final chapters introduce the concept of cardinalities of sets and the concepts and proofs of real analysis and group theory. In the appendix, the author includes some basic guidelines to follow when writing proofs. Written in a conversational style, yet maintaining the proper level of mathematical rigor, this accessible book teaches students to reason logically, read proofs critically, and write valid mathematical proofs. It will prepare them to succeed in more advanced mathematics courses, such as abstract algebra and geometry.

Mathematical Proofs Pearson New International Edition

Mathematical Proofs  Pearson New International Edition PDF
Author: Gary Chartrand
Publisher: Pearson Higher Ed
ISBN: 1292052341
Size: 30.33 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 424
View: 5490

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Mathematical Proofs: A Transition to Advanced Mathematics, Third Edition, prepares students for the more abstract mathematics courses that follow calculus. Appropriate for self-study or for use in the classroom, this text introduces students to proof techniques, analyzing proofs, and writing proofs of their own. Written in a clear, conversational style, this book provides a solid introduction to such topics as relations, functions, and cardinalities of sets, as well as the theoretical aspects of fields such as number theory, abstract algebra, and group theory. It is also a great reference text that students can look back to when writing or reading proofs in their more advanced courses.

Famous Mathematical Proofs

Famous Mathematical Proofs PDF
Author: Edited by Paul F. Kisak
Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
ISBN: 9781519464330
Size: 23.97 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 256
View: 766

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In mathematics, a proof is a deductive argument for a mathematical statement. In the argument, other previously established statements, such as theorems, can be used. In principle, a proof can be traced back to self-evident or assumed statements, known as axioms. Proofs are examples of deductive reasoning and are distinguished from inductive or empirical arguments; a proof must demonstrate that a statement is always true (occasionally by listing all possible cases and showing that it holds in each), rather than enumerate many confirmatory cases. An unproved proposition that is believed true is known as a conjecture. Proofs employ logic but usually include some amount of natural language which usually admits some ambiguity. In fact, the vast majority of proofs in written mathematics can be considered as applications of rigorous informal logic. Purely formal proofs, written in symbolic language instead of natural language, are considered in proof theory. This book contains 'solutions' to some of the most noteworthy mathematical proofs (QED).

The Nuts And Bolts Of Proofs

The Nuts and Bolts of Proofs PDF
Author: Antonella Cupillari
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0080537901
Size: 50.69 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 192
View: 7460

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The Nuts and Bolts of Proof instructs students on the basic logic of mathematical proofs, showing how and why proofs of mathematical statements work. It provides them with techniques they can use to gain an inside view of the subject, reach other results, remember results more easily, or rederive them if the results are forgotten.A flow chart graphically demonstrates the basic steps in the construction of any proof and numerous examples illustrate the method and detail necessary to prove various kinds of theorems. * The "List of Symbols" has been extended. * Set Theory section has been strengthened with more examples and exercises. * Addition of "A Collection of Proofs"

Science Of Learning Mathematical Proofs The An Introductory Course

Science of Learning Mathematical Proofs  The  An Introductory Course PDF
Author: Elana Reiser
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company
ISBN: 9789811225512
Size: 75.51 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 200
View: 2201

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College students struggle with the switch from thinking of mathematics as a calculation based subject to a problem solving based subject. This book describes how the introduction to proofs course can be taught in a way that gently introduces students to this new way of thinking. This introduction utilizes recent research in neuroscience regarding how the brain learns best. Rather than jumping right into proofs, students are first taught how to change their mindset about learning, how to persevere through difficult problems, how to work successfully in a group, and how to reflect on their learning. With these tools in place, students then learn logic and problem solving as a further foundation.Next various proof techniques such as direct proofs, proof by contraposition, proof by contradiction, and mathematical induction are introduced. These proof techniques are introduced using the context of number theory. The last chapter uses Calculus as a way for students to apply the proof techniques they have learned.

Math Proofs Demystified

Math Proofs Demystified PDF
Author: Stan Gibilisco
Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional
ISBN: 0071469923
Size: 50.62 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 290
View: 5450

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Almost every student has to study some sort of mathematical proofs, whether it be in geometry, trigonometry, or with higher-level topics. In addition, mathematical theorems have become an interesting course for many students outside of the mathematical arena, purely for the reasoning and logic that is needed to complete them. Therefore, it is not uncommon to have philosophy and law students grappling with proofs. This book is the perfect resource for demystifying the techniques and principles that govern the mathematical proof area, and is done with the standard “Demystified” level, questions and answers, and accessibility.

A Transition To Mathematics With Proofs

A Transition to Mathematics with Proofs PDF
Author: Michael J Cullinane
Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Publishers
ISBN: 1449627781
Size: 79.47 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 354
View: 1466

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Developed for the "transition" course for mathematics majors moving beyond the primarily procedural methods of their calculus courses toward a more abstract and conceptual environment found in more advanced courses, A Transition to Mathematics with Proofs emphasizes mathematical rigor and helps students learn how to develop and write mathematical proofs. The author takes great care to develop a text that is accessible and readable for students at all levels. It addresses standard topics such as set theory, number system, logic, relations, functions, and induction in at a pace appropriate for a wide range of readers. Throughout early chapters students gradually become aware of the need for rigor, proof, and precision, and mathematical ideas are motivated through examples.

100 Mathematical Proof

100  Mathematical Proof PDF
Author: Rowan Garnier
Publisher: John Wiley & Son Limited
ISBN:
Size: 60.29 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 317
View: 3368

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"Proof" has been and remains one of the concepts which characterises mathematics. Covering basic propositional and predicate logic as well as discussing axiom systems and formal proofs, the book seeks to explain what mathematicians understand by proofs and how they are communicated. The authors explore the principle techniques of direct and indirect proof including induction, existence and uniqueness proofs, proof by contradiction, constructive and non-constructive proofs, etc. Many examples from analysis and modern algebra are included. The exceptionally clear style and presentation ensures that the book will be useful and enjoyable to those studying and interested in the notion of mathematical "proof."

Nonplussed

Nonplussed  PDF
Author: Julian Havil
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400837383
Size: 71.16 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 216
View: 5373

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Math—the application of reasonable logic to reasonable assumptions—usually produces reasonable results. But sometimes math generates astonishing paradoxes—conclusions that seem completely unreasonable or just plain impossible but that are nevertheless demonstrably true. Did you know that a losing sports team can become a winning one by adding worse players than its opponents? Or that the thirteenth of the month is more likely to be a Friday than any other day? Or that cones can roll unaided uphill? In Nonplussed!—a delightfully eclectic collection of paradoxes from many different areas of math—popular-math writer Julian Havil reveals the math that shows the truth of these and many other unbelievable ideas. Nonplussed! pays special attention to problems from probability and statistics, areas where intuition can easily be wrong. These problems include the vagaries of tennis scoring, what can be deduced from tossing a needle, and disadvantageous games that form winning combinations. Other chapters address everything from the historically important Torricelli's Trumpet to the mind-warping implications of objects that live on high dimensions. Readers learn about the colorful history and people associated with many of these problems in addition to their mathematical proofs. Nonplussed! will appeal to anyone with a calculus background who enjoys popular math books or puzzles.