After The Washington Consensus

After the Washington Consensus PDF
Author: Pedro-Pablo Kuczynski
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0881324515
Size: 18.17 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 400
View: 3978

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This volume is a successor of sorts to the Institute's 1986 volume Toward Renewed Economic Growth in Latin America, which blazed the trail for the market-oriented economic reforms that were adopted in Latin America in the subsequent years. It again presents the work of a group of leading Latin American economists who were asked to think about the nature of the economic policy agenda that the region should be pursuing after a decade that was punctuated by crises, achieved disappointingly slow growth, and saw no improvement in the region's highly skewed income distribution. The study diagnoses the first-generation (liberalizing and stabilizing) reforms that are still lacking, the complementary second-generation (institutional) reforms that are necessary to provide the institutional infrastructure of a market economy with an egalitarian bias, and the new initiatives that are needed to crisis-proof the economies of the region to end its perpetual series of crises. Contributors: Daniel Artana, Nancy Birdsall, Roberto Bouzas, Saúl Keifman, Pedro-Pablo Kuczynski, Ricardo López Murphy, Claudio de Moura Castro, Fernando Navajas, Patricio Navia, Liliana Rojas-Suarez, Jaime Saavedra, Miguel Székely, Andrés Velasco, John Williamson, and Laurence Wolff.

Growth Employment And Equity

Growth  Employment  and Equity PDF
Author: Barbara Stallings
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 9780815798293
Size: 12.80 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 272
View: 6980

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In the last ten to fifteen years, the Latin American and Caribbean region has undergone the most significant transformation of economic policy since World War II. Through a series of structural reforms, an increasing number of countries have moved from closed, state-dominated economies to ones that are more market oriented and open to the rest of the world. Policymakers expected that these changes, in conjunction with lower rates of inflation and increased spending in the social area, would speed up economic growth, increase productivity, and lead to the creation of more jobs and greater equality. Have those expectations been fulfilled? Analyzing the impact of the reforms in nine countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Jamaica, Mexico, Peru), this study provides a detailed picture of progress to date. At the overall regional level, the book suggests, the reforms have had a surprisingly small impact: a small positive impact on investment and growth, and a small negative impact on employment and income distribution. But at the country, sectoral, and microeconomic levels, it finds evidence of strong effects, with some units doing very well and others falling behind.

Economic Growth In Latin America And The Caribbean

Economic Growth in Latin America and the Caribbean PDF
Author: Norman Loayza
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821360914
Size: 56.39 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 156
View: 1984

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Several countries in Latin America and the Caribbean are suffering severe economic downturns and the success of market-oriented reforms is being called into question. This report seeks to contribute to the debate by examining the nature of economic growth in the region. The aim is threefold: to describe the basic characteristics of growth; explain differences across countries and to forecast changes over the next decade.

Export Growth In Latin America

Export Growth in Latin America PDF
Author: Carla Macario
Publisher: Lynne Rienner Publishers
ISBN: 9781555877590
Size: 24.83 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 183
View: 3623

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Although Latin American and Caribbean countries have assigned a high priority to increasing exports, export performance in most cases remains deficient. This work investigates why this is so, identifying the policies that determine successes and failures in Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico.

Market Liberalism Growth And Economic Development In Latin America

Market Liberalism  Growth  and Economic Development in Latin America PDF
Author: Gerardo Angeles Castro
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113671989X
Size: 76.89 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 272
View: 4634

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The principal themes pursued in this book emerge from the great transformation that the Latin American and the Caribbean economies experienced in the aftermath of both the foreign debt crisis of 1982 and the macroeconomic stabilisation policies that vividly and painfully produced the so-called "lost decade" of the 1980s. Latin America implemented an economic liberalisation process during the late 1980s and the 1990s. The main policy reforms involved in that course can be summarized as privatization of state owned firms, trade openness, deregulation of the foreign direct investment (FDI) regime and fiscal discipline. Latin American countries have also embarked in regional trade agreements, the most important ones being Mercosur and the North American Free trade Agreement (NAFTA). This book compares results from the experience of North-South and South-South moulds of integration. Thus, the impacts of these policies on growth, development, technological progress, poverty and inequality are analysed. Orthodox and heterodox economic policies and theories are discussed along with relevant empirical evidence with a view to assess, on the one hand, the relative merits of the various policy reforms applied by different countries in the region, and on the other, the experience of integration into the global economy. There are thirteen chapters in this collection linked in varying ways to the series of economic reforms introduced in the region in the last decades. The book will be of interest to academics, researchers, students and policymakers interested in the study of economic development in emerging economies and in particular in Latin America.

Economic Development Of Latin America

Economic Development of Latin America PDF
Author: Celso Furtado
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521290708
Size: 65.12 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 317
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This is an introductory survey of the history and recent development of Latin American economy and society from colonial times to the establishment of the military regime in Chile. In the second edition the historical perspective has been enlarged and important events since the Cuban Revolution, such as the agrarian reforms of Peru and Chile, the difficulties of the Central America Common Market and LAFTA, the acceleration of industrialisation in Brazil and the consolidation of the Cuban economy, are discussed. The statistical information has been extended to the early 1970s and the demographic data to 1975.

Distribution And Growth In Latin America In An Era Of Structural Reform

Distribution and Growth in Latin America in an Era of Structural Reform PDF
Author: Samuel A. Morley
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 78.94 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Development
Languages : en
Pages : 41
View: 4735

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Latin America has long had the most unequally distributed income in the world because of land ownership patterns, development and education policies and demography, which have swelled the supply of unskilled labour and demand for skilled workers, leading to widening inequality. Import substitution produced high growth but also high inequality and led to a debt crisis. But globalisation reforms in the 1990s did not reduce inequality and sometimes increased it. Now, because of poor export performance, the priority is the tricky problem of how to boost the growth rate. The aim should be to absorb as much of the region's excess of unskilled labour as possible, especially through construction and agriculture. Growth with equity should also focus on supporting and investing in backward regions. But the long-term key is education, which will narrow skill differentials, reduce inequality and increase the growth rate ...

Latin American Land Reforms In Theory And Practice

Latin American Land Reforms in Theory and Practice PDF
Author: Peter Dorner
Publisher: Univ of Wisconsin Press
ISBN: 9780299131647
Size: 71.26 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 108
View: 6956

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Surveying three decades of land reform efforts in Latin America, Peter Dorner draws upon his broad experience as both a policy maker and a researcher specializing in land tenure systems. He argues that the failures of Latin American land reforms are due to a lack of political will and commitment exacerbated by inadequate capital resources. Avoiding polemics, Dorner evaluates the many competing theoretical and ideological positions in the ongoing debates over land reform, from structuralist economics to liberation theology. He then looks at a range of actual reform experiences, including local peasant initiatives and international aid projects. Emphasizing the growing complexity of Latin American economies, Dorner demonstrates that solutions successful in one country may fail in another. He concludes that aid and political pressure from the international community can play only a peripheral role. Recognizing that change must come from within, Latin American countries must develop multifaceted approaches to meet objectives based on their own individual experiences. Dorner warns that "romantic" expectations for future land reform relying on any one solution will continue to lead to disillusionment. If opportunities for the landless population were actually a top priority of governments and power-brokers, Dorner believes, they could be achieved through agrarian reform policies that set clear goals and criteria for implementation. Nevertheless, the potential gains from such a program are, in most cases, more limited now than thirty years ago.

Investment And Economic Reform In Latin America

Investment and Economic Reform in Latin America PDF
Author: Graciela Moguillansky
Publisher: United Nations Publications
ISBN:
Size: 34.69 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Capital
Languages : en
Pages : 186
View: 6163

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This book is a part of a project to study the economic reforms implemented in Latin America and the Caribbean in the last two decades. This publication analyzes the investment process and attempts to link macroeconomic aspects to sectoral, microeconomic and institutional factors. Thus, it examines the impact of structural reform, institutional change and market structures in conjunction with important legal and regulatory aspects. The book also contributes to the understanding of the investment process in the context of the economic reforms.

Reform And Growth In Latin America

Reform and Growth in Latin America PDF
Author: Eduardo Fernández-Arias
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 36.61 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Economic stabilization
Languages : en
Pages : 44
View: 5360

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The paper addresses the adequacy of post-reform growth in Latin America in the 1990s on the basis of international comparison and other relevant standards, analytically exploring and empirically testing a number of hypotheses to explain the perceived dissatisfaction with growth performance. It also estimates the long-run growth payoff of macroeconomic reforms, the additional gains that can be achieved by deepening the first generation of reforms, and the potential payoff from broadening the scope of reform into a second generation of reforms encompassing deeper structural and institutional areas.

Public Finances Stabilization And Structural Reform In Latin America

Public Finances  Stabilization and Structural Reform in Latin America PDF
Author: Guillermo Perry
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 65.28 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Economic stabilization
Languages : en
Pages : 133
View: 1510

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"Summarizes recent changes in Latin American public finances and tax structures. Primary focus on Argentina, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico. Describes impact of fiscal decentralization, privatization, and trade liberalization, as well as various types of tax