Weather And Climate Extremes In A Changing Climate

Weather and Climate Extremes in a Changing Climate PDF
Author: United States Climate Change Science Program
Publisher: CreateSpace
ISBN: 9781507847367
Size: 46.76 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 180
View: 5196

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Changes in extreme weather and climate events have significant impacts and are among the most serious challenges to society in coping with a changing climate. Many extremes and their associated impacts are now changing. For example, in recent decades most of North America has been experiencing more unusually hot days and nights, fewer unusually cold days and nights, and fewer frost days. Heavy downpours have become more frequent and intense. Droughts are becoming more severe in some regions, though there are no clear trends for North America as a whole. The power and frequency of Atlantic hurricanes have increased substantially in recent decades, though North American mainland land-falling hurricanes do not appear to have increased over the past century. Outside the tropics, storm tracks are shifting northward and the strongest storms are becoming even stronger. It is well established through formal attribution studies that the global warming of the past 50 years is due primarily to human-induced increases in heat-trapping gases. Such studies have only recently been used to determine the causes of some changes in extremes at the scale of a continent. Certain aspects of observed increases in temperature extremes have been linked to human influences. The increase in heavy precipitation events is associated with an increase in water vapor, and the latter has been attributed to human-induced warming. No formal attribution studies for changes in drought severity in North America have been attempted. There is evidence suggesting a human contribution to recent changes in hurricane activity as well as in storms outside the tropics, though a confident assessment will require further study. In the future, with continued global warming, heat waves and heavy downpours are very likely to further increase in frequency and intensity. Substantial areas of North America are likely to have more frequent droughts of greater severity. Hurricane wind speeds, rainfall intensity, and storm surge levels are likely to increase. The strongest cold season storms are likely to become more frequent, with stronger winds and more extreme wave heights. Current and future impacts resulting from these changes depend not only on the changes in extremes, but also on responses by human and natural systems.

Potential Impacts Of Climate Change In The United States

Potential Impacts of Climate Change in the United States PDF
Author: Robert Shackleton
Publisher: Congressional Budget Office
ISBN:
Size: 13.99 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 25
View: 5942

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Presents an overview of the current understanding of the impacts of climate change in the United States.

Managing The Risks Of Extreme Events And Disasters To Advance Climate Change Adaptation

Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation PDF
Author: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107025060
Size: 76.79 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 582
View: 6270

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Extreme weather and climate events, interacting with exposed and vulnerable human and natural systems, can lead to disasters. This Special Report explores the social as well as physical dimensions of weather- and climate-related disasters, considering opportunities for managing risks at local to international scales. SREX was approved and accepted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) on 18 November 2011 in Kampala, Uganda.

A Twenty First Century Us Water Policy

A Twenty First Century US Water Policy PDF
Author: Juliet Christian-Smith
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199859450
Size: 59.84 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 360
View: 3471

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It is zero hour for a new US water policy! At a time when many countries are adopting new national approaches to water management, the United States still has no cohesive federal policy, and water-related authorities are dispersed across more than 30 agencies. Here, at last, is a vision for what we as a nation need to do to manage our most vital resource. In this book, leading thinkers at world-class water research institution the Pacific Institute present clear and readable analysis and recommendations for a new federal water policy to confront our national and global challenges at a critical time. What exactly is at stake? In the 21st century, pressures on water resources in the United States are growing and conflicts among water users are worsening. Communities continue to struggle to meet water quality standards and to ensure that safe drinking water is available for all. And new challenges are arising as climate change and extreme events worsen, new water quality threats materialize, and financial constraints grow. Yet the United States has not stepped up with adequate leadership to address these problems. The inability of national policymakers to safeguard our water makes the United States increasingly vulnerable to serious disruptions of something most of us take for granted: affordable, reliable, and safe water. This book provides an independent assessment of water issues and water management in the United States, addressing emerging and persistent water challenges from the perspectives of science, public policy, environmental justice, economics, and law. With fascinating case studies and first-person accounts of what helps and hinders good water management, this is a clear-eyed look at what we need for a 21st century U.S. water policy.

Abrupt Climate Change

Abrupt Climate Change PDF
Author: Peter U. Clark
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
ISBN: 1437915698
Size: 80.18 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 459
View: 7059

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This report is part of a series of 21 Synthesis and Assessments (SAP) aimed at providing current assessments of climate change science to inform public debate, policy, and operational decisions. These reports are also intended to help develop future program research priorities. The guiding vision is to provide the Nation and the global community with the science-based knowledge needed to manage the risks and capture the opportunities associated with climate and related environmental changes. This SAP assesses abrupt climate change events where key aspects of the climate system change faster than the responsible forces would suggest and/or faster than society can respond to those changes. Illustrations.

America S Climate Choices

America s Climate Choices PDF
Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309145856
Size: 73.69 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 134
View: 7181

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Climate change is occurring. It is very likely caused by the emission of greenhouse gases from human activities, and poses significant risks for a range of human and natural systems. And these emissions continue to increase, which will result in further change and greater risks. America's Climate Choices makes the case that the environmental, economic, and humanitarian risks posed by climate change indicate a pressing need for substantial action now to limit the magnitude of climate change and to prepare for adapting to its impacts. Although there is some uncertainty about future risk, acting now will reduce the risks posed by climate change and the pressure to make larger, more rapid, and potentially more expensive reductions later. Most actions taken to reduce vulnerability to climate change impacts are common sense investments that will offer protection against natural climate variations and extreme events. In addition, crucial investment decisions made now about equipment and infrastructure can "lock in" commitments to greenhouse gas emissions for decades to come. Finally, while it may be possible to scale back or reverse many responses to climate change, it is difficult or impossible to "undo" climate change, once manifested. Current efforts of local, state, and private-sector actors are important, but not likely to yield progress comparable to what could be achieved with the addition of strong federal policies that establish coherent national goals and incentives, and that promote strong U.S. engagement in international-level response efforts. The inherent complexities and uncertainties of climate change are best met by applying an iterative risk management framework and making efforts to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions; prepare for adapting to impacts; invest in scientific research, technology development, and information systems; and facilitate engagement between scientific and technical experts and the many types of stakeholders making America's climate choices.

Fisheries In The Economies Of The Pacific Island Countries And Territories

Fisheries in the Economies of the Pacific Island Countries and Territories PDF
Author: Robert Gillett
Publisher: Asian Development Bank
ISBN: 9292546953
Size: 33.63 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 519
View: 4710

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The fishing industry benefits the people and economies of the Pacific in various ways but the full value of these benefits is not reflected in the region's statistics. Records may be maintained but they are not complete, or accurate, or comparable. The research summarized in this report reaffirms the importance of this sector to the economies and societies of the Pacific island countries. The research reveals that the full value of fisheries is likely to have eluded statisticians, and therefore fisheries authorities, government decision makers, and donors. But its value has never escaped the fisher, fish trader, and fish processor. The difference in appreciation between public and private individuals must raise the question of whether fisheries are receiving adequate attention from the public sector---including the necessary management and protection, appropriate research, development, extension and training, and sufficient investment.

Human Toxicology Of Chemical Mixtures

Human Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures PDF
Author: Harold Zeliger
Publisher: William Andrew
ISBN: 9781437734645
Size: 68.64 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 574
View: 6399

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In this important reference work, Zeliger catalogs the known effects of chemical mixtures on the human body and also proposes a framework for understanding and predicting their actions in terms of lipophile (fat soluble) / hydrophile (water soluble) interactions. The author’s focus is on illnesses that ensue following exposures to mixtures of chemicals that cannot be attributed to any one component of the mixture. In the first part the mechanisms of chemical absorption at a molecular and macromolecular level are explained, as well as the body’s methods of defending itself against xenobiotic intrusion. Part II examines the sources of the chemicals discusssed, looking at air and water pollution, food additives, pharmaceuticals, etc. Part III, which includes numerous case studies, examines specific effects of particular mixtures on particular body systems and organs and presents a theoretical framework for predicting what the effects of uncharacterized mixtures might be. Part IV covers regulatory requirements and the need to adjust recommended exposure levels for products containing mixtures. It also contains recommendations on how to limit exposure to mixtures in the products we use and on how to limit release of mixtures into the environment. Providing brief summaries of each mixture and its effects, Zeliger provides a comprehensive reference, a jumping off point for professionals (with extensive chapter bibliographies) and an introduction to the topic for those studying traditional toxicology. Addressing many inadequately understood illnesses and conditions such as asthma, infertility and cancer, it will also be of interest to health professionals, environmental scientists and lawyers. Presents a theoretical framework for predicting the effects of chemical mixtures for which no specific data exists (this predictive aspect is important due to the vast number of different potential chemical combinations - far too many to comprehensively catalog) A quick and convenient source of hard to come by data on the rapidly developing field of chemical mixtures, for groups including chemists and engineers, toxicologists, health professionals and environmental scientists New and updated material comprises over 30% of this timely new edition, which includes the latest research data alongside an expanded introduction to the science and art of predicting the toxicological properties of chemical mixtures

Restructuring Federal Climate Research To Meet The Challenges Of Climate Change

Restructuring Federal Climate Research to Meet the Challenges of Climate Change PDF
Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309131731
Size: 61.65 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 266
View: 3916

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Climate change is one of the most important global environmental problems facing the world today. Policy decisions are already being made to limit or adapt to climate change and its impacts, but there is a need for greater integration between science and decision making. This book proposes six priorities for restructuring the United States' climate change research program to develop a more robust knowledge base and support informed responses: Reorganize the Program Around Integrated Scientific-Societal Issues Establish a U.S. Climate Observing System Support a New Generation of Coupled Earth System Models Strengthen Research on Adaptation, Mitigation, and Vulnerability Initiate a National Assessment of the Risks and Costs of Climate Change Impacts and Options to Respond Coordinate Federal Efforts to Provide Climate Information, Tools, and Forecasts Routinely to Decision Makers

Extremes In A Changing Climate

Extremes in a Changing Climate PDF
Author: Amir AghaKouchak
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400744781
Size: 59.70 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 426
View: 1432

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This book provides a collection of the state-of-the-art methodologies and approaches suggested for detecting extremes, trend analysis, accounting for nonstationarities, and uncertainties associated with extreme value analysis in a changing climate. This volume is designed so that it can be used as the primary reference on the available methodologies for analysis of climate extremes. Furthermore, the book addresses current hydrometeorologic global data sets and their applications for global scale analysis of extremes. While the main objective is to deliver recent theoretical concepts, several case studies on extreme climate conditions are provided. Audience The book is suitable for teaching in graduate courses in the disciplines of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth System Science, Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences.

Weather And Climate Extremes

Weather and Climate Extremes PDF
Author: Thomas R. Karl
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401592659
Size: 17.30 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 349
View: 3041

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Are extreme weather events becoming more common? How do extreme weather events impact society? These are critical questions that must be examined as we confront the possibility that the world will experience a change in climate over the next century. Much of the research in climatology over the past decade has focused on potential changes in long- term averages of temperature, precipitation and other factors. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that changes in average values will be accompanied by changes in extreme events. Furthermore, extreme weather events will impact society to a greater extent as people around the world continue to locate in more hazard-prone areas such as coastal zones. This book represents a major step forwards in developing a comprehensive set of information about changes in extreme events by providing a review of the problems in data availability, quality and analysis that make deriving a clear picture of world-wide changes in extreme events so difficult. Audience: The book is intended for policy-makers, professionals, graduate students and others interested in learning how extreme weather events have changed, and how they impact society both now and in the future.