Radiation In The Atmosphere

Radiation in the Atmosphere PDF
Author: Kondratyev
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0080954472
Size: 71.29 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 911
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Radiation in the Atmosphere

Changing The Atmosphere

Changing the Atmosphere PDF
Author: Paul Edwards
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262632195
Size: 76.53 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 385
View: 118

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Incorporating historical, sociological, and philosophical approaches, Changing the Atmosphere presents detailed empirical studies of climate science and its uptake into public policy.

Non Lte Radiative Transfer In The Atmosphere

Non LTE Radiative Transfer in the Atmosphere PDF
Author: Manuel López-Puertas
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9789812811493
Size: 16.28 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 506
View: 1283

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Ch. 1. Introduction and overview. 1.1. General introduction. 1.2. Basic properties of the Earth's atmosphere. 1.3. What is LTE? 1.4. Non-LTE situations. 1.5. The importance of non-LTE. 1.6. Some historical background. 1.7. Non-LTE models. 1.8. Experimental studies of non-LTE. 1.9. Non-LTE in planetary atmospheres. 1.10. References and further reading -- ch. 2. Molecular spectra. 2.1. Introduction. 2.2. Energy levels in diatomic molecules. 2.3. Energy levels in polyatomic molecules. 2.4. Transitions and spectral bands. 2.5. Properties of individual vibration-rotation lines. 2.6. Interactions between energy levels. 2.7. References and further reading -- ch. 3. Basic atmospheric radiative transfer. 3.1. Introduction. 3.2. Properties of radiation. 3.3. The radiative transfer equation. 3.4. The formal solution of the radiative transfer equation. 3.5. Thermodynamic equilibrium and local thermodynamic equilibrium. 3.6. The source function in non-LTE. 3.7. Non-LTE situations. 3.8. References and further reading -- ch. 4. Solutions to the radiative transfer equation in LTE. 4.1. Introduction. 4.2. Integration of the radiative transfer equation over height. 4.3. Integration of the radiative transfer equation over frequency. 4.4. Integration of the radiative transfer equation over solid angle. 4.5. References and further reading -- ch. 5. Solutions to the radiative transfer equation in non-LTE. 5.1. Introduction. 5.2. Simple solutions for radiative transfer under non-LTE. 5.3. The full solution of the radiative transfer equation in non-LTE. 5.4. Integration of the RTE in non-LTE. 5.5. Intercomparison of non-LTE codes. 5.6. Parameterizations of the non-LTE cooling rate. 5.7. The Curtis matrix method. 5.8. References and further reading -- ch. 6. Non-LTE modelling of the Earth's atmosphere I: CO2. 6.1. Introduction. 6.2. Useful approximations. 6.3. Carbon dioxide, CO2. 6.4. References and further reading -- ch. 7. Non-LTE modelling of the Earth's atmosphere II: Other infrared emitters. 7.1. Introduction. 7.2. Carbon monoxide, CO. 7.3. Ozone, O3. 7.4. Water vapour, H2O. 7.5. Methane, CH4. 7.6. Nitric oxide, NO. 7.7. Nitrogen dioxide, NO2. 7.8. Nitrous oxide, N2O. 7.9. Nitric acid, HNO3. 7.10. Hydroxyl radical, OH. 7.11. Molecular oxygen atmospheric infrared bands. 7.12. Hydrogen chloride, HC1, and hydrogen fluoride, HF. 7.13. NO+. 7.14. Atomic Oxygen, O (3P), at 63[symbol]m. 7.15. References and further reading -- ch. 8. Remote sensing of the non-LTE atmosphere. 8.1. Introduction. 8.2. The analysis of emission measurements. 8.3. Observations of carbon dioxide in emission. 8.4. Observations of ozone in emission. 8.5. Observations of water vapour in emission. 8.6. Observations of carbon monoxide in emission. 8.7. Observations of nitric oxide in emission. 8.8. Observations of other infrared emissions. 8.9. Rotational non-LTE. 8.10. Absorption measurements. 8.11. Simulated limb emission spectra at high resolution. 8.12. Simulated Nadir emission spectra at high resolution. 8.13. Non-LTE retrieval schemes. 8.14. References and further reading -- ch. 9. Cooling and heating rates. 9.1. Introduction. 9.2. CO2 15 f[symbol]m cooling. 9.3. O3 9.6[symbol]xm cooling. 9.4. H2O 6.3[symbol]m cooling. 9.5. NO 5.3[symbol]m cooling. 9.6. O(3Pi) 63[symbol]m cooling. 9.7. Summary of cooling rates. 9.8. CO2 solar heating. 9.9. References and further reading -- ch. 10. Non-LTE in planetary atmospheres. 10.1. Introduction. 10.2. The terrestrial planets: Mars and Venus. 10.3. A non-LTE model for the Martian and Venusian atmospheres. 10.4. Mars. 10.5. Venus. 10.6. Outer planets. 10.7. Titan. 10.8. Comets. 10.9. References and further reading.

The Atmosphere

The Atmosphere PDF
Author: Gregory Vogt
Publisher: Twenty-First Century Books
ISBN: 0761328416
Size: 19.78 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Juvenile Nonfiction
Languages : en
Pages : 80
View: 6155

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Explains what the atmosphere is made of, why it is considered a dynamic system, and why it must be protected.

Intraseasonal Variability In The Atmosphere Ocean Climate System

Intraseasonal Variability in the Atmosphere Ocean Climate System PDF
Author: William K.-M. Lau
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540272502
Size: 50.21 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 437
View: 6302

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This is the first comprehensive review of intra-seasonal variability (ISV); the contents are balanced between observation, theory and modeling. Starting with an overview of ISV and historical observations, the book addresses the coupling between ocean and atmosphere, and the worldwide role of ISV in monsoon variability. Also considered are the connections between oscillations like the Madden, Julian and El Nino/Southern and short-term climate.

Reactive Halogen Compounds In The Atmosphere

Reactive Halogen Compounds in the Atmosphere PDF
Author: Peter Fabian
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540640905
Size: 15.30 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Nature
Languages : en
Pages : 230
View: 3780

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With contributions by numerous experts

Factor Separation In The Atmosphere

Factor Separation in the Atmosphere PDF
Author: Pinhas Alpert
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 113949404X
Size: 78.72 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages :
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Modeling atmospheric processes in order to forecast the weather or future climate change is an extremely complex and computationally intensive undertaking. One of the main difficulties is that there are a huge number of factors that need to be taken into account, some of which are still poorly understood. The Factor Separation (FS) method is a computational procedure that helps deal with these nonlinear factors. In recent years many scientists have applied FS methodology to a range of modeling problems, including paleoclimatology, limnology, regional climate change, rainfall analysis, cloud modeling, pollution, crop growth, and other forecasting applications. This book is the first to describe the fundamentals of the method, and to bring together its many applications in the atmospheric sciences. The main audience is researchers and graduate students using the FS method, but it is also of interest to advanced students, researchers, and professionals across the atmospheric sciences.

Radiative Transfer In The Atmosphere And Ocean

Radiative Transfer in the Atmosphere and Ocean PDF
Author: Gary E. Thomas
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521890618
Size: 61.34 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 517
View: 4868

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Provides a foundation of the theoretical and practical aspects of radiative transfer, for the atmospheric, oceanic and environmental sciences.

Fundamentals Of Physics And Chemistry Of The Atmosphere

Fundamentals of Physics and Chemistry of the Atmosphere PDF
Author: Guido Visconti
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540674207
Size: 14.89 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Nature
Languages : en
Pages : 593
View: 3915

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This book takes an introductory look at the physics and chemistry of the atmosphere and the climate dynamics. It provides the basics in thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, radiation and chemistry and explains the most interesting problems existing in the study of the atmosphere of the Earth and planets. This book also offers the computer programs to solve these problems. Themes covered include the most recent evolution concerning the ozone hole, the carbon dioxide problem, and chaos theory.

The Atmosphere And Ionosphere

The Atmosphere and Ionosphere PDF
Author: Vladimir Bychkov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048132126
Size: 10.72 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 362
View: 3241

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From July 7 to 12, 2008 in Zelenogradsk, a cosy resort on the bank of the Baltic Sea near Kaliningrad in Russia, the 1st International Conference “Atmosphere, Ionosphere, Safety (AIS-2008)” has been carried out. The State Russian University of I. Kant, Semenov Institute of chemical physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushkov Institute of terrestrial magnetism and radio-waves propagation of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and Russian Committee on Ball Lightning (BL) have acted as organizers of the conference. Financial support was made by Russian Fund of Fundamental Research Project N. 08-03-06041 and European Of?ce of Aerospace Research and Development Grant award FA8655-08-1-5052. The International conference “Atmosphere, Ionosphere, Safety” (AIS-2008) was devoted to (i) the analysis of the atmosphere–ionosphere response on natural and man-made processes, the reasons of occurrence of the various accompanying geophysical phenomena, and an estimation of possible consequences of their in?uence on the person and technological systems; (ii) the study of the monitoring possibility and search of the ways for the risk level decrease. Discussion of the physical and chemical processes accompanying the observable geophysical p- nomena was undertaken. One can see from a list of the Conference sections that questions of safety took only rather modest place, so main topics of the Conference became discussion of processes taking place in the atmosphere, ionosphere and methods of monitoring these processes.

Chemical Events In The Atmosphere And Their Impact On The Environment

Chemical Events in the Atmosphere and their Impact on the Environment PDF
Author: G.B. Marini-Bettòlo
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080874852
Size: 66.82 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 699
View: 5486

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This book covers the proceedings of a study week held to bring together the most varied experiences in the many disciplines which form the background of ecology. The purpose of the meeting was to examine the present state of knowledge and the need for research in order to gather the information necessary for action to protect the environment and biosphere. Many aspects of the anthropogenic effects on the atmosphere have been studied. However more research is needed to quantify the impact of the various chemicals on the changes occurring in the atmosphere. Acid rain formation mechanisms, although investigated, are not yet fully understood. It is thus necessary to program carefully our future, after further interdisciplinary research, in order to avoid irreversible damage to our environment. The guidelines of this action, as a result of the presentations and discussions, are reported in the conclusions. The main points stressed are: tropospheric chemistry, the problem of the conservation of the ozone layer, the growth of carbon dioxide and climate changes, atmospheric acidity, the effects of changes on water, soils and biota as well as the particular problems of the tropical world. The book will be ideal for postgraduates studying atmospheric chemistry and for environmental protection agencies.