The Myth Of Mirror Neurons The Real Neuroscience Of Communication And Cognition

The Myth of Mirror Neurons  The Real Neuroscience of Communication and Cognition PDF
Author: Gregory Hickok
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 0393244164
Size: 13.18 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 288
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An essential reconsideration of one of the most far-reaching theories in modern neuroscience and psychology. In 1992, a group of neuroscientists from Parma, Italy, reported a new class of brain cells discovered in the motor cortex of the macaque monkey. These cells, later dubbed mirror neurons, responded equally well during the monkey’s own motor actions, such as grabbing an object, and while the monkey watched someone else perform similar motor actions. Researchers speculated that the neurons allowed the monkey to understand others by simulating their actions in its own brain. Mirror neurons soon jumped species and took human neuroscience and psychology by storm. In the late 1990s theorists showed how the cells provided an elegantly simple new way to explain the evolution of language, the development of human empathy, and the neural foundation of autism. In the years that followed, a stream of scientific studies implicated mirror neurons in everything from schizophrenia and drug abuse to sexual orientation and contagious yawning. In The Myth of Mirror Neurons, neuroscientist Gregory Hickok reexamines the mirror neuron story and finds that it is built on a tenuous foundation—a pair of codependent assumptions about mirror neuron activity and human understanding. Drawing on a broad range of observations from work on animal behavior, modern neuroimaging, neurological disorders, and more, Hickok argues that the foundational assumptions fall flat in light of the facts. He then explores alternative explanations of mirror neuron function while illuminating crucial questions about human cognition and brain function: Why do humans imitate so prodigiously? How different are the left and right hemispheres of the brain? Why do we have two visual systems? Do we need to be able to talk to understand speech? What’s going wrong in autism? Can humans read minds? The Myth of Mirror Neurons not only delivers an instructive tale about the course of scientific progress—from discovery to theory to revision—but also provides deep insights into the organization and function of the human brain and the nature of communication and cognition.

Cognitive Sciences And Medieval Studies

Cognitive Sciences and Medieval Studies PDF
Author: Juliana Dresvina
Publisher: University of Wales Press
ISBN: 1786836750
Size: 20.31 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 336
View: 1643

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With the rapid development of the cognitive sciences and their importance to how we contemplate questions about the mind and society, recent research in the humanities has been characterised by a ‘cognitive turn’. For their part, the humanities play an important role in forming popular ideas of the human mind and in analysing the way cognitive, psychological and emotional phenomena are experienced in time and space. This collection aims to inspire medievalists and other scholars within the humanities to engage with the tools and investigative methodologies deriving from cognitive sciences. Contributors explore topics including medieval and modern philosophy of mind, the psychology of religion, the history of psychological medicine and the re-emergence of the body in cognition. What is the value of mapping how neurons fire when engaging with literature and art? How can we understand psychological stress as a historically specific phenomenon? What can medieval mystics teach us about contemplation and cognition?

Sensory Perceptions In Language Embodiment And Epistemology

Sensory Perceptions in Language  Embodiment and Epistemology PDF
Author: Annalisa Baicchi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319912771
Size: 75.62 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 215
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The book illustrates how the human ability to adapt to the environment and interact with it can explain our linguistic representation of the world as constrained by our bodies and sensory perception. The different chapters discuss philosophical, scientific, and linguistic perspectives on embodiment and body perception, highlighting the core mechanisms humans employ to acquire knowledge of reality. These processes are based on sensory experience and interaction through communication.

The Evolution Of Imagination

The Evolution of Imagination PDF
Author: Stephen T. Asma
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022622533X
Size: 30.98 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 320
View: 464

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Consider Miles Davis, horn held high, sculpting a powerful musical statement full of tonal patterns, inside jokes, and thrilling climactic phrases—all on the fly. Or think of a comedy troupe riffing on a couple of cues from the audience until the whole room is erupting with laughter. Or maybe it’s a team of software engineers brainstorming their way to the next Google, or the Einsteins of the world code-cracking the mysteries of nature. Maybe it’s simply a child playing with her toys. What do all of these activities share? With wisdom, humor, and joy, philosopher Stephen T. Asma answers that question in this book: imagination. And from there he takes us on an extraordinary tour of the human creative spirit. Guided by neuroscience, animal behavior, evolution, philosophy, and psychology, Asma burrows deep into the human psyche to look right at the enigmatic but powerful engine that is our improvisational creativity—the source, he argues, of our remarkable imaginational capacity. How is it, he asks, that a story can evoke a whole world inside of us? How are we able to rehearse a skill, a speech, or even an entire scenario simply by thinking about it? How does creativity go beyond experience and help us make something completely new? And how does our moral imagination help us sculpt a better society? As he shows, we live in a world that is only partly happening in reality. Huge swaths of our cognitive experiences are made up by “what-ifs,” “almosts,” and “maybes,” an imagined terrain that churns out one of the most overlooked but necessary resources for our flourishing: possibilities. Considering everything from how imagination works in our physical bodies to the ways we make images, from the mechanics of language and our ability to tell stories to the creative composition of self-consciousness, Asma expands our personal and day-to-day forms of imagination into a grand scale: as one of the decisive evolutionary forces that has guided human development from the Paleolithic era to today. The result is an inspiring look at the rich relationships among improvisation, imagination, and culture, and a privileged glimpse into the unique nature of our evolved minds.

Contracts Of Fiction

Contracts of Fiction PDF
Author: Ellen Spolsky
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190232161
Size: 49.75 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Literary Criticism
Languages : en
Pages : 336
View: 4040

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The Contracts of Fiction reconnects our fictional worlds to the rest of our lives. Countering the contemporary tendency to dismiss works of imagination as enjoyable but epistemologically inert, the book considers how various kinds of fictions construct, guide, and challenge institutional relationships within social groups. The contracts of fiction, like the contracts of language, law, kinship, and money, describe the rules by which members of a group toggle between tokens and types, between their material surroundings - the stuff of daily life - and the abstractions that give it value. Rethinking some familiar literary concepts such as genre and style from the perspective of recent work in the biological, cognitive, and brain sciences, the book displays how fictions engage bodies and minds in ways that help societies balance continuity and adaptability. Being part of a community means sharing the ways its members use stories, pictures, plays and movies, poems and songs, icons and relics, to generate usable knowledge about the people, objects, beliefs and values in their environment. Exposing the underlying structural and processing homologies among works of imagination and life processes such as metabolism and memory, Ellen Spolsky demonstrates the seamless connection of life to art by revealing the surprising dependence of both on disorder, imbalance, and uncertainty. In early modern London, for example, reformed religion, expanding trade, and changed demographics made the obsolescent courts a source of serious inequities. Just at that time, however, a flood of wildly popular revenge tragedies, such as Hamlet, by their very form, by their outrageous theatrical grotesques, were shouting the need for change in the justice system. A sustained discussion of the genre illustrates how biological homeostasis underpins the social balance that we maintain with difficulty, and how disorder itself incubates new understanding.

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Author: أفلاطون
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 57.82 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Political science
Languages : ar
Pages : 288
View: 7612

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Author: ألبير كامو
Publisher: دار الميدان للنشر والتوزيع
ISBN:
Size: 69.37 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Art
Languages : ar
Pages : 176
View: 4418

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رواية مترجمة عن الفرنسية ألبير كاميو العبثيه هي فلسفه تتلخص في أن مجهودات الإنسان لإدراك معنى الكون دائما ما تنتهي بالفشل الحتمي ، ذلك لأن هذا المعنى المنشود غير موجود أساسا، على الأقل فيما يتعلق بالفرد. ومصطلح "عبثي" في هذا السياق لا يعني غير ممكن منطقيا، وإنما هو ما يتنافى مع المنطق أو بالأحرى لا يحترم قواعده ولا يخضع لها. وهو تلك الصعوبه التي يعانيها المرء في سبيل محاولة فهم العالم الذي يحياه، وبمعنى آخر هو أحد أرقى مستويات السخريه بإعتباره ما ليس متناسقاً ولا منسجماً مع أي شئ. "دورة العبث" هي سلسله فلسفيه عبثيه قدمها لنا ألبير كاميو لسرد أفكاره العبثيه بحريه وتتكون من : أسطورة سيزيف"مقال1942" – الغريب "روايه1942" – كاليجولا "مسرحيه1938" – سوء تفاهم "مسرحيه1944".

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Author: زيان، عبد السلام،
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 75.11 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Electronic books
Languages : ar
Pages : 234
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               PDF
Author: ألبير كامو
Publisher: ktab INC.
ISBN:
Size: 44.20 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Fiction
Languages : ar
Pages : 300
View: 351

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وقعت الاحداث الغريبة,التى هى موضوع القصة عام 194 فى وهران.ولما كانت خارجة بعض الشئ عن المألوف.فإنها فى رأى الناس عامة,ليست أكثر من مقاطعة فرنسية على الشاطئ الجزائرى.وينبغى بأن المدينة نفسها قبيحة. ولما كانت هادئة المظهر,فلابد من يعض الوقت لملاحظة ما يجعلها مختلفة عن كثير من المدن التجارية,على جميع المستويات.

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Author:
Publisher:
ISBN: 9789933484866
Size: 73.28 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :
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                    PDF
Author: ابن العربي
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 43.10 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Sufism
Languages : ar
Pages :
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