Phylogenetic Ecology

Phylogenetic Ecology PDF
Author: Nathan G. Swenson
Publisher:
ISBN: 022667150X
Size: 64.10 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 240
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Over the past decade, ecologists have increasingly embraced phylogenetics, the study of evolutionary relationships among species. As a result, they have come to discover the field's power to illuminate present ecological patterns and processes. Ecologists are now investigating whether phylogenetic diversity is a better measure of ecosystem health than more traditional metrics like species diversity, whether it can predict the future structure and function of communities and ecosystems, and whether conservationists might prioritize it when formulating conservation plans. In Phylogenetic Ecology, Nathan G. Swenson synthesizes this nascent field's major conceptual, methodological, and empirical developments to provide students and practicing ecologists with a foundational overview. Along the way, he highlights those realms of phylogenetic ecology that will likely increase in relevance--such as the burgeoning subfield of phylogenomics--and shows how ecologists might lean on these new perspectives to inform their research programs.

Functional And Phylogenetic Ecology In R

Functional and Phylogenetic Ecology in R PDF
Author: Nathan G. Swenson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461495423
Size: 21.19 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 212
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Functional and Phylogenetic Ecology in R is designed to teach readers to use R for phylogenetic and functional trait analyses. Over the past decade, a dizzying array of tools and methods were generated to incorporate phylogenetic and functional information into traditional ecological analyses. Increasingly these tools are implemented in R, thus greatly expanding their impact. Researchers getting started in R can use this volume as a step-by-step entryway into phylogenetic and functional analyses for ecology in R. More advanced users will be able to use this volume as a quick reference to understand particular analyses. The volume begins with an introduction to the R environment and handling relevant data in R. Chapters then cover phylogenetic and functional metrics of biodiversity; null modeling and randomizations for phylogenetic and functional trait analyses; integrating phylogenetic and functional trait information; and interfacing the R environment with a popular C-based program. This book presents a unique approach through its focus on ecological analyses and not macroevolutionary analyses. The author provides his own code, so that the reader is guided through the computational steps to calculate the desired metrics. This guided approach simplifies the work of determining which package to use for any given analysis. Example datasets are shared to help readers practice, and readers can then quickly turn to their own datasets.

Phylogeny Ecology And Behavior

Phylogeny  Ecology  and Behavior PDF
Author: Daniel R. Brooks
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226075729
Size: 49.52 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 434
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"The merits of this work are many. A rigorous integration of phylogenetic hypotheses into studies of adaptation, adaptive radiation, and coevolution is absolutely necessary and can change dramatically our collective 'gestalt' about much in evolutionary biology. The authors advance and illustrate this thesis beautifully. The writing is often lucid, the examples are plentiful and diverse, and the juxtaposition of examples from different biological systems argues forcefully for the validity of the thesis. Many new insights are offered here, and the work is usually accessible to both the practiced phylogeneticist and the naive ecologist."—Joseph Travis, Florida State University "[Phylogeny, Ecology, and Behavior] presents its arguments forcefully and cogently, with ample . . .support. Brooks and McLennan conclude as they began, with the comment that evolution is a result, not a process, and that it is the result of an interaction of a variety of processes, environmental and historical. Evolutionary explanations must consider all these components, else they are incomplete. As Darwin's explanations of descent with modification integrated genealogical and ecological information, so must workers now incorporate historical and nonhistorical, and biological and nonbiological, processes in their evolutionary perspective."—Marvalee H. Wake, Bioscience "This book is well-written and thought-provoking, and should be read by those of us who do not routinely turn to phylogenetic analysis when investigating adaptation, evolutionary ecology and co-evolution."—Mark R. MacNair, Journal of Natural History

Phylogenies In Ecology

Phylogenies in Ecology PDF
Author: Marc W. Cadotte
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691157685
Size: 24.63 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 264
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Phylogenies in Ecology is the first book to critically review the application of phylogenetic methods in ecology, and it serves as a primer to working ecologists and students of ecology wishing to understand these methods. This book demonstrates how phylogenetic information is transforming ecology by offering fresh ways to estimate the similarities and differences among species, and by providing deeper, evolutionary-based insights on species distributions, coexistence, and niche partitioning. Marc Cadotte and Jonathan Davies examine this emerging area's explosive growth, allowing for this new body of hypotheses testing. Cadotte and Davies systematically look at all the main areas of current ecophylogenetic methodology, testing, and inference. Each chapter of their book covers a unique topic, emphasizes key assumptions, and introduces the appropriate statistical methods and null models required for testing phylogenetically informed hypotheses. The applications presented throughout are supported and connected by examples relying on real-world data that have been analyzed using the open-source programming language, R. Showing how phylogenetic methods are shedding light on fundamental ecological questions related to species coexistence, conservation, and global change, Phylogenies in Ecology will interest anyone who thinks that evolution might be important in their data.

The Causes And Consequences Of Microbial Community Structure

The causes and consequences of microbial community structure PDF
Author: Diana Reid Nemergut
Publisher: Frontiers E-books
ISBN: 2889193616
Size: 25.17 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :
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The causes and consequences of differences in microbial community structure, defined here as the relative proportions of rare and abundant organisms within a community, are poorly understood. Articles in “The Causes and Consequences of Microbial Community Structure”, use empirical or modeling approaches as well as literature reviews to enrich our mechanistic understanding of the controls over the relationship between community structure and ecosystem processes. Specifically, authors address the role of trait distributions and tradeoffs, species-species interactions, evolutionary dynamics, community assembly processes and physical controls in affecting ‘who’s there’ and ‘what they are doing.’

Species Concepts And Phylogenetic Theory

Species Concepts and Phylogenetic Theory PDF
Author: Quentin D. Wheeler
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231506627
Size: 11.84 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 256
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No question in theoretical biology has been more perennially controversial or perplexing than "What is a species?" Recent advances in phylogenetic theory have called into question traditional views of species and spawned many concepts that are currently competing for general acceptance. Once the subject of esoteric intellectual exercises, the "species problem" has emerged as a critically important aspect of global environmental concerns. Completion of an inventory of biodiversity, success in conservation, predictive knowledge about life on earth, management of material resources, formulation of scientifically credible public policy and law, and more depend upon our adoption of the "right" species concept. Quentin D. Wheeler and Rudolf Meier present a debate among top systematic biology theorists to consider the strengths and weaknesses of five competing concepts. Debaters include (1) Ernst Mayr (Biological Species Concept), (2) Rudolf Meier and Rainer Willmann (Hennigian species concept), (3) Brent Mishler and Edward Theriot (one version of the Phylogenetic Species Concept), (4) Quentin Wheeler and Norman Platnick (a competing version of the Phylogenetic Species Concept), and (5) E. O. Wiley and Richard Mayden (the Evolutionary Species Concept). Each author or pair of authors contributes three essays to the debate: first, a position paper with an opening argument for their respective concept of species; second, a counterpoint view of the weakness of competing concepts; and, finally, a rebuttal of the attacks made by other authors. This unique and lively debate format makes the comparative advantages and disadvantages of competing species concepts clear and accessible in a single book for the first time, bringing to light numerous controversies in phylogenetic theory, taxonomy, and philosophy of science that are important to a wide audience. Species Concepts and Phylogenetic Theory will meet a need among scientists, conservationists, policy-makers, and students of biology for an explicit, critical evaluation of a large and complex literature on species. An important reference for professionals, the book will prove especially useful in classrooms and discussion groups where students may find a concise, lucid entrée to one of the most complex questions facing science and society.

Ecology And Evolution Of The Freshwater Mussels Unionoida

Ecology and Evolution of the Freshwater Mussels Unionoida PDF
Author: G. Bauer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540672685
Size: 66.25 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 394
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Unionoida (naiads) are characterized by larvae which have to pass through a parasitic stage on a host fish. Some of these host-parasite systems are unique, since the generation time of the parasite exceeds that of its host by a factor of ten. There is tremendous life history variation. With a life span of more than 200 years, some naiad species belong to the longest-lived invertebrates, some are highly host-specific, some are extremely fertile, some produce very peculiar larvae, and some occur at very high population densities. This volume describes and explains the characteristics and life histories of the naiads, the interactions with their hosts, and their evolution. It elucidates the manifold implications of their presence or absence in a lake or stream. Further, aspects of nature conservation are covered, as many naiad species are seriously threatened. Some have been used successfully as sensitive pollutant indicators in habitat monitoring and as "archives" for environmental changes.

Advances In Sponge Science

Advances in Sponge Science PDF
Author: Mikel A. Becerro
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123877873
Size: 12.82 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 432
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Advances in Marine Biology has been providing in-depth and up-to-date reviews on all aspects of marine biology since 1963 -- over 45 years of outstanding coverage! The series is well-known for both its excellence of reviews and editing. Now edited by Michael Lesser, with an internationally renowned Editorial Board, the serial publishes in-depth and up-to-date content on a wide range of topics that will appeal to postgraduates and researchers in marine biology, fisheries science, ecology, zoology, and biological oceanography. This volume will become a reference to marine biologists with interest in benthic ecology and biotic interactions, including symbiosis chemical and molecular ecology systematics, phylogeny, and evolution sponge culture and tissue engineering

Bat Ecology

Bat Ecology PDF
Author: Thomas H. Kunz
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226462072
Size: 61.96 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Nature
Languages : en
Pages : 779
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Bats display astonishing ecological and evolutionary diversity and serve as important models for studies of a wide variety of topics, including food webs, biogeography, and emerging diseases. In Bat Ecology, world-renowned bat scholars present an up-to-date, comprehensive, and authoritative review of this ongoing research. The first part of the book covers the life history and behavioral ecology of bats, from migration to sperm competition and natural selection. The next section focuses on functional ecology, including ecomorphology, feeding, and physiology. In the third section, contributors explore macroecological issues such as the evolution of ecological diversity, range size, and infectious diseases (including rabies) in bats. A final chapter discusses conservation challenges facing these fascinating flying mammals. "Kunz and Fenton have enlisted an outstanding group of bat biologists, who, without exception, have done a superb job summarizing and synthesizing the material in their respective chapters. . . . This is a very valuable book."—John O. Whitaker Jr., Ecology

Evolutionary Ecology

Evolutionary Ecology PDF
Author:
Publisher: Eric R. Pianka
ISBN:
Size: 68.59 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :
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Finally, an eBook version of this now classic textbook has become available. Largely based on the 6th edition, published in 2000, this version is competitively priced. Written by well-known ecologist Eric R. Pianka, a student of the late Robert H. MacArthur, this timeless treatment of evolutionary ecology, first published in 1974, will endure for many decades to come. Basic principles of ecology are framed in an evolutionary perspective.

Advances In Molecular Ecology

Advances in Molecular Ecology PDF
Author: North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Scientific Affairs Division
Publisher: IOS Press
ISBN: 9789051994407
Size: 35.92 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 313
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Each contributor to this publication was asked to examine how molecular genetic tools have contributed to their specific areas of consideration. To increase the practical utility of the book, a summary of software that is available for the anaylsis of data in molecular ecology is included.

Environmental Modelling

Environmental Modelling PDF
Author: John Wainwright
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118351487
Size: 22.22 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 496
View: 1924

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Simulation models are an established method used to investigate processes and solve practical problems in a wide variety of disciplines. Central to the concept of this second edition is the idea that environmental systems are complex, open systems. The authors present the diversity of approaches to dealing with environmental complexity and then encourage readers to make comparisons between these approaches and between different disciplines. Environmental Modelling: Finding Simplicity in Complexity 2nd edition is divided into four main sections: An overview of methods and approaches to modelling. State of the art for modelling environmental processes Tools used and models for management Current and future developments. The second edition evolves from the first by providing additional emphasis and material for those students wishing to specialize in environmental modelling. This edition: Focuses on simplifying complex environmental systems. Reviews current software, tools and techniques for modelling. Gives practical examples from a wide variety of disciplines, e.g. climatology, ecology, hydrology, geomorphology and engineering. Has an associated website containing colour images, links to WWW resources and chapter support pages, including data sets relating to case studies, exercises and model animations. This book is suitable for final year undergraduates and postgraduates in environmental modelling, environmental science, civil engineering and biology who will already be familiar with the subject and are moving on to specialize in the field. It is also designed to appeal to professionals interested in the environmental sciences, including environmental consultants, government employees, civil engineers, geographers, ecologists, meteorologists, and geochemists.

Biodiversity Ii

Biodiversity II PDF
Author: A Joseph Henry Press book
Publisher: Joseph Henry Press
ISBN: 0309055849
Size: 39.43 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 560
View: 750

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"The book before you . . . carries the urgent warning that we are rapidly altering and destroying the environments that have fostered the diversity of life forms for more than a billion years." With those words, Edward O. Wilson opened the landmark volume Biodiversity (National Academy Press, 1988). Despite this and other such alarms, species continue to vanish at a rapid rate, taking with them their genetic legacy and potential benefits. Many disappear before they can even be identified. Biodiversity II is a renewed call for urgency. This volume updates readers on how much we already know and how much remains to be identified scientifically. It explores new strategies for quantifying, understanding, and protecting biodiversity, including New approaches to the integration of electronic data, including a proposal for a U.S. National Biodiversity Information Center. Application of techniques developed in the human genome project to species identification and classification. The Gap Analysis Program of the National Biological Survey, which uses layered satellite, climatic, and biological data to assess distribution and better manage biodiversity. The significant contribution of museum collections to identifying and categorizing species, which is essential for understanding ecological function and for targeting organisms and regions at risk. The book describes our growing understanding of how megacenters of diversity (e.g., rainforest insects, coral reefs) are formed, maintained, and lost; what can be learned from mounting bird extinctions; and how conservation efforts for neotropical primates have fared. It also explores ecosystem restoration, sustainable development, and agricultural impact. Biodiversity II reinforces the idea that the conservation of our biological resources is within reach as long as we pool resources; better coordinate the efforts of existing institutions--museums, universities, and government agencies--already dedicated to this goal; and enhance support for research, collections, and training. This volume will be important to environmentalists, biologists, ecologists, educators, students, and concerned individuals.

Ecology And Conservation Of Amphibians

Ecology and Conservation of Amphibians PDF
Author: Trevor Beebee
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780412624100
Size: 18.92 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Nature
Languages : en
Pages : 214
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This volume sets out to provide an overview of recent research on all aspects of amphibian ecology and behaviour and to illustrate its application to practical conservation measures for this major group of animals. Its broad scope makes it of relevance to students of general biology, ecology and conservation, but also to professionals in industries and agencies involved with environmental issues and nature conservation.