Perspectives On Causation

Perspectives on Causation PDF
Author: Richard Goldberg
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1847318266
Size: 11.30 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Law
Languages : en
Pages : 478
View: 6395

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The chapters in this volume arise from a conference held at the University of Aberdeen concerning the law of causation in the UK, Commonwealth countries, France and the USA. The distinguished group of international experts who have contributed to this book examine the ways in which legal doctrine in causation is developing, and how British law should seek to influence and be influenced by developments in other countries. As such, the book will serve as a focal point for the study of this important area of law. The book is organised around three themes - the black letter law, scientific evidence, and legal theory. In black letter law scholarship, major arguments have emerged about how legal doctrine will develop in cases involving indeterminate defendants and evidential gaps in causation. Various chapters examine the ways in which legal doctrine should develop over the next few years, in particular in England, Scotland, Canada and the USA, including the problem of causation in asbestos cases. In the area of scientific evidence, its role in the assessment of causation in civil litigation has never been greater. The extent to which such evidence can be admitted and used in causation disputes is controversial. This section of the book is therefore devoted to exploring the role of statistical evidence in resolving causation problems, including recent trends in litigation in the UK, USA, Australia and in France and the question of liability for future harm. In the legal theory area, the so-called NESS (necessary element in a sufficient set) test of causation is discussed and defended. The importance of tort law responding to developing science and observations from the perspective of precaution and indeterminate causation are also explored. The book will be of interest to legal academics, policy makers in the field, specialist legal practitioners, those in the pharmaceutical and bioscience sectors, physicians and scientists.

Perspectives On Causation

Perspectives on Causation PDF
Author: Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030343081
Size: 53.53 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 482
View: 4299

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This book explores relationships and maps out intersections between discussions on causation in three scientific disciplines: linguistics, philosophy, and psychology. The book is organized in five thematic parts, investigating connections between philosophical and linguistic studies of causation; presenting novel methodologies for studying the representation of causation; tackling central issues in syntactic and semantic representation of causal relations; and introducing recent advances in philosophical thinking on causation. Beyond its thematic organization, readers will find several recurring topics throughout this book, such as the attempt to reduce causality to other non-causal terms; causal pluralism vs. one all-encompassing account for causation; causal relations pertaining to the mental as opposed to the physical realm, and more. This collection also lays the foundation for questioning whether it is possible to evaluate available philosophical approaches to causation against the variety of linguistic phenomena ranging across diverse lexical and grammatical items, such as bound morphemes, prepositions, connectives, and verbs. Above all, it lays the groundwork for considering whether the fruits of the psychological-cognitive study of the perception of causal relations may contribute to linguistic and philosophical studies, and whether insights from linguistics can benefit the other two disciplines.

Philosophical And Scientific Perspectives On Downward Causation

Philosophical and Scientific Perspectives on Downward Causation PDF
Author: Michele Paolini Paoletti
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317271432
Size: 39.76 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 334
View: 5793

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Downward causation plays a fundamental role in many theories of metaphysics and philosophy of mind. It is strictly connected with many topics in philosophy, including but not limited to: emergence, mental causation, the nature of causation, the nature of causal powers and dispositions, laws of nature, and the possibility of ontological and epistemic reductions. Philosophical and Scientific Perspectives on Downward Causation brings together experts from different fields—including William Bechtel, Stewart Clark and Tom Lancaster, Carl Gillett, John Heil, Robin F. Hendry, Max Kistler, Stephen Mumford and Rani Lill Anjum —who delve into classic and unexplored lines of philosophical inquiry related to downward causation. It critically assesses the possibility of downward causation given different ontological assumptions and explores the connection between downward causation and the metaphysics of causation and dispositions. Finally, it presents different cases of downward causation in empirical fields such as physics, chemistry, biology and the neurosciences. This volume is both a useful introduction and a collection of original contributions on this fascinating and hotly debated philosophical topic.

Explanation Beyond Causation

Explanation Beyond Causation PDF
Author: Alexander Reutlinger
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198777949
Size: 65.16 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 288
View: 5421

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What forms does explanation take if it is not based on causation? Fifteen leading philosophers explore this hot topic, arising from a shift in philosophical understanding of the nature of explanation which reflects actual explanatory practices in science, mathematics, and philosophy.

Causation In Negligence

Causation in Negligence PDF
Author: Sarah Green
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1782255206
Size: 38.98 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Law
Languages : en
Pages : 224
View: 1490

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The principal objective of this book is simple: to provide a timely and effective means of navigating the current maze of case law on causation, in order that the solutions to causal problems might more easily be reached and the law relating to them more easily understood. The need for this has been increasingly evident in recent judgments dealing with causal issues: in particular, it seems to be ever harder to distinguish between the different 'categories' of causation and, consequently, to identify the legal test to be applied on any given set of facts. Causation in Negligence will make such identification easier, both by clarifying the parameters of each category and mapping the current key cases accordingly, and by providing one basic means of analysis which will make the resolution of even the thorniest of causal issues a straightforward process. The causal inquiry in negligence seems to have become a highly complicated and confused area of the law. As this book demonstrates, this is unnecessary and easily remedied.

Medicinal Product Liability And Regulation

Medicinal Product Liability and Regulation PDF
Author: Richard Goldberg
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 1782251545
Size: 77.83 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Law
Languages : en
Pages : 242
View: 3620

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The piecemeal developments in product liability reform in Europe have their origins in the tragic association of phocomelia in children with thalidomide in 1962. In many ways these events have continued to generate pressure for reform of product liability, especially for the victims of drug-induced injury. This monograph attempts to address the major problems that typify claims for drug-induced injury, as well as highlighting the complex interrelationship between liability exposure and drug regulation. While medicinal products are subject to strict liability under the product liability directive, the claimant may have considerable difficulty in establishing that the relevant product is defective and that it caused the damage. It may also be necessary to overcome the development risk defence where this is pleaded. The monograph addresses these problems on a comparative jurisprudential basis, and seeks to determine whether medicinal products should be treated as a special case in the field of product liability. It examines the role of epidemiological evidence in assessing causation in product liability cases concerning medicinal products in the light of recent developments in the UK Supreme Court, the United States, Canada and France. In particular, it addresses the difficulties in reconciling the standards of proof in law and science, including the theory that causation can be proved on the balance of probabilities by reference to the doubling of risk of injury. An important case study compares and contrasts the approaches of the UK and the US to the measles, mumps, rubella Litigation. The book also examines the question as to whether compliance with regulatory standards should protect pharmaceutical manufacturers from product liability suits. It seeks to support a via media whereby the victims of drug induced injury can receive justice, while at the same time encouraging drug safety and innovation in drug development.

The Tradeoff Between Number Of Children And Child Schooling

The Tradeoff Between Number of Children and Child Schooling PDF
Author: Mark Montgomery
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821331231
Size: 61.16 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 98
View: 3287

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Annotation World Bank Living Standards Measurement Study No. 112. Assesses evidence of a negative correlation between the number of children born and levels of child schooling by examining their determinants. In many developing countries, as parents have fewer children, they invest more in the health, education, and welfare of each child. This "quantity-quality tradeoff" is vividly illustrated in the recent economic development of Southeast Asia and Latin America. In Sub-Saharan Africa, however, the existence of such a tradeoff has not been established. The few studies conducted to date reveal either no correlation or a slightly positive one, whereby higher fertility rates are linked to greater schooling per child. This study examines the determinants of fertility and of child schooling in C te d'Ivoire and Ghana to assess evidence of a tradeoff, using data from three surveys conducted between 1985 and 1987. The results are mixed. In C te d'Ivoire, there is evidence of such a tradeoff in urban areas but not rural ones. In urban areas, female schooling, higher income, and improved child survival are associated with lower fertility and higher child schooling. In both rural and urban areas of Ghana, there is a tradeoff between fertility and child schooling with higher incomes, and, in rural Ghana, with increases in mothers' schooling. Also available in French ("La relation entre le nombre des enfants et de la scolarisation: Le cas de la C te d'Ivoire et du Ghana"): (ISBN 0-8213-3374-7) Stock No. 13374.

Brocklehurst S Textbook Of Geriatric Medicine And Gerontology

Brocklehurst s Textbook of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology PDF
Author: Howard M. Fillit
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 1437720757
Size: 28.65 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 1152
View: 1347

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Popular with generations of practitioners, Brocklehurst's Textbook of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology has been the definitive reference of choice in the field of geriatric care. The new 7th Edition, by Howard M. Fillit, MD, Kenneth Rockwood, MD, and Kenneth Woodhouse, carries on this tradition with an increased clinical focus and updated coverage to help you meet the unique challenges posed by this growing patient population. Consistent discussions of clinical manifestations, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and more make reference quick and easy, while over 255 illustrations compliment the text to help you find what you need on a given condition. Examples of the latest imaging studies depict the effects of aging on the brain, and new algorithms further streamline decision making. Emphasizes the clinical relevance of the latest scientific findings to help you easily apply the material to everyday practice. Features consistent discussions of clinical manifestations, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and more that make reference quick and easy. Includes over 255 illustrations—including algorithms, photographs, and tables—that compliment the text to help you find what you need on a given condition. Provides summary boxes at the end of each chapter that highlight important points. Features the work of an expert author team, now led by Dr. Howard M. Fillit who provides an American perspective to complement the book’s traditional wealth of British expertise. Includes an expanded use of algorithms to streamline decision making. Presents more color images in the section on aging skin, offering a real-life perspective of conditions for enhanced diagnostic accuracy. Includes examples of the latest imaging studies to help you detect and classify changes to the brain during aging. Offers Grade A evidence-based references keyed to the relevant text.

Designing Research In The Social Sciences

Designing Research in the Social Sciences PDF
Author: Martino Maggetti
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1849205019
Size: 26.30 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 200
View: 7619

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This innovative research design text will help you make informed choices when carrying out your research project. Covering both qualitative and quantitative approaches, and with examples drawn from a wide range of social science disciplines, the authors explain what is at stake when choosing a research design, and discuss the trade-offs that researchers have to make when considering issues such as causality, categories and classification, meaning, levels of analysis, and time.

Oxford Handbook Of Developmental Behavioral Neuroscience

Oxford Handbook of Developmental Behavioral Neuroscience PDF
Author: Mark Blumberg
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198042969
Size: 66.47 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 784
View: 5396

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The Oxford Handbook of Developmental Behavioral Neuroscience is a seminal reference work in the burgeoning field of developmental behavioral neuroscience, which has emerged in recent years as an important sister discipline to developmental psychobiology. This handbook, part of the Oxford Library of Neuroscience, provides an introduction to recent advances in research at the intersection of developmental science and behavioral neuroscience, while emphasizing the central research perspectives of developmental psychobiology. Contributors to the Oxford Handbook of Developmental Behavioral Neuroscience are drawn from a variety of fields, including developmental psychobiology, neuroscience, comparative psychology, and evolutionary biology, demonstrating the opportunities to advance our understanding of behavioral and neural development through enhanced interactions among parallel disciplines. In a field ripe for collaboration and integration, the Oxford Handbook of Developmental Behavioral Neuroscience provides an unprecedented overview of conceptual and methodological issues pertaining to comparative and developmental neuroscience that can serve as a roadmap for researchers and a textbook for educators. Its broad reach will spur new insights and compel new collaborations in this rapidly growing field.

The Professional Serial Killer And The Career Of Ted Bundy

The Professional Serial Killer and the Career of Ted Bundy PDF
Author: Bonnie M. Rippo Psy. D.
Publisher: iUniverse
ISBN: 0595867200
Size: 56.37 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : True Crime
Languages : en
Pages : 92
View: 6495

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In the pages of The Professional Serial Killer and the Career of Ted Bundy, you will find yourself eerily intrigued as the serial killer introduces himself to you. Say hello to your neighbor, partner, son, or daughter-whose dual identity now includes the facade of Politician, Clergyman, Lawyer, Contractor, or Compliance Officer. Your imagination will spark as you slowly but gradually become enamored to the serial killer's ingenuity, as an entrepreneur in the art of murder. Now that you are chillingly mesmerized by his charm, the serial killer takes great pleasure in his sting operation. Thrilled as he passionately and addictively perfects his art, the killer creatively refines his ruse for capturing his victims. In order to inflict the highest level of horror and pain each scene is designed to give the killer an ultimate high of sadistic pleasure. As you reel back and forth, from the disdain you feel for the killer, a sudden and unsuspecting sinking feeling erupts through your very being. The sensation that this is not a horror movie, illuminates your mind, and grasps your fascination with the question: How did this happen? A more intriguing question may be: When did this start? You may want to ask three-year old Ted Bundy.

Encyclopedia Of Educational Theory And Philosophy

Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy PDF
Author: D. C. Phillips
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1483364755
Size: 66.63 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 952
View: 2626

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Education is a field sometimes beset by theories-of-the-day and with easy panaceas that overpromise the degree to which they can alleviate pressing educational problems. The two-volume Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy introduces readers to theories that have stood the test of time and those that have provided the historical foundation for the best of contemporary educational theory and practice. Drawing together a team of international scholars, this invaluable reference examines the global landscape of all the key theories and the theorists behind them and presents them in the context needed to understand their strengths and weaknesses. In addition to interpretations of long-established theories, this work offers essays on cutting-edge research and concise, to-the-point definitions of key concepts, ideas, schools, and figures. Features: Over 300 signed entries by trusted experts in the field are organized into two volumes and overseen by a distinguished General Editor and an international Editorial Board. Entries are followed by cross references and further reading suggestions. A Chronology of Theory within the field of education highlights developments over the centuries; a Reader’s Guide groups entries thematically, and a master Bibliography facilitates further study. The Reader’s Guide, detailed index, and cross references combine for strong search-and-browse capabilities in the electronic version. Available in a choice of print or electronic formats, Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy is an ideal reference for anyone interested in the roots of contemporary educational theory.