Evaluation Of Spray Injection Patching

Evaluation of Spray Injection Patching PDF
Author: G. W. Maupin
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 29.96 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Pavements, Asphalt
Languages : en
Pages : 27
View: 4821

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A preliminary telephone survey of users of spray injection patching equipment revealed general satisfaction. In addition, a demonstration and follow-up 2-month evaluation of a rented truck-mounted unit convinced Virginia Department of Transportation officials to purchase a unit for a more detailed evaluation. The purchased unit was evaluated over a 2.5-year period with respect to cost-effectiveness of repairs, effectiveness during cold temperatures, and potential increased worker safety. The unit worked well and produced durable patches, even during cold temperatures. It was important to use clean aggregate and a different type of emulsion during extremely cold temperatures. A cost-benefit analysis indicated that patches installed by the spray injection unit were more cost-effective than repairs using the skin patching technique. Fewer workers were exposed directly to traffic during the operation, which is a potential benefit, especially on highways with considerable traffic. The unit may be preferable and perhaps necessary where the number of available personnel is limited.

Virginia State Documents

Virginia State Documents PDF
Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 12.60 MB
Format: PDF
Category : State government publications
Languages : en
Pages :
View: 5112

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Material Selection For Spray Injection Patching Method

Material Selection for Spray Injection Patching Method PDF
Author: Bijay Subedi
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 19.72 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Asphalt
Languages : en
Pages : 161
View: 1027

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Literature review of several research projects have widely endorsed Spray Injection Patching method as a cost effective and durable pothole repair technique. While these studies provide detailed information related to different states, few researches have been made in Ohio to find out best material combinations to address compatibility issues of different aggregates with asphalt emulsions and best procedure to a long lasting spray injection patch. This study focusses on laboratory testing (compatibility, demulsibility and sensitivity analysis) accompanied with installation of pothole patches from spray injection patching method and its monthly evaluation. Laboratory test for compatibility evaluation was done as described in section 16 of AASHTO T 59-09 with some modifications in which fifteen different aggregates were mixed with seven different asphalt emulsions and in the demulsibility evaluation, the same aggregates were mixed with an asphalt emulsion of six different demulsibility values. For sensitivity test, aggregates stored at room, low and freezing temperature with varying moisture and dust contents were mixed with one asphalt emulsion according to section 16 of AASHTO T 59-09. During these tests, percentage coatings of the mixture, time to start turn black, balling etc. were noted. After laboratory tests, 8 different test sites were chosen with natural cracks and potholes to be durapatched with three aggregates and five asphalt emulsion. Unlike several other studies, no artificial potholes were created for this project. Each site was divided into 40 feet sections and size and dimension of potholes before durapatching were noted. Each section of each site was given a rating based on its condition in the months following installation. These findings were analyzed to find the durability of the spray injection patches with respect to material combinations and climatic conditions. It was observed that cationic emulsion worked better with gravels and anionic emulsions worked better with limestones and dolostones. Also, asphalt emulsion with lower demulsibility values coated better and took more time to break than with higher demulsibility values. It was also observed that higher amount of dust (>3%) in aggregate resulted in significant lower coating and faster curing of asphalt emulsion. The dust in aggregate was found have caused more detrimental effects than moisture in terms of aggregate coating. It was even seen that presence of some moisture in aggregate caused better aggregate coating. From the laboratory experiments, it was also known that with lower temperature, aggregate coating got lower. From field installation it was seen that the potholes patched in relatively warmer temperatures remained intact throughout the evaluation period but the patches installed during below freezing temperatures were subjected to severe damage. Spray injection patches with asphalt emulsion of lower demulsibility values as well as sites where the operator reportedly used more asphalt emulsion in the patch showed more bleeding. Deeper potholes also showed more dishing than shallow potholes.

Evaluation Of Winter Pothole Patching Methods

Evaluation of Winter Pothole Patching Methods PDF
Author: Munir D. Nazzal
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 26.80 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Pavements, Asphalt
Languages : en
Pages : 110
View: 1647

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The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and cost-effectiveness of the tow-behind combination infrared asphalt heater/reclaimer patching method and compare it to the throw and roll and spray injection methods. To achieve this objective a national survey was first conducted to document the experience of the infrared asphalt heater/reclaimer users in different states. In addition, a comprehensive testing program, that included installing over 60 patches using the three considered methods as well as monitoring the performance and survivability of those patches, was performed. The results of the survey and subsequent phone interviews indicated that the infrared asphalt heater/reclaimer equipment can significantly improve the performance and longevity of pothole patches and can be cost-effective when proper installation procedures are followed. The results of testing program indicated that the infrared method had much lower productivity than the other two methods. In addition, the throw and roll had better productivity than the spray injection method. The properties and storage procedure of the asphalt mixture used in the infrared method were found to affect the performance of the installed patches. Improper storage of the infrared heater/reclaimer equipment also was found to cause problems in igniting the infrared heater, which significantly increased the patching duration. In general, most of the deterioration in the patches installed using the different methods occurred in the first month of installation and continued after that but at much slower rate. The infrared patches had significantly better performance than those installed using the two other patching methods. The main distress in infrared patches was raveling, while it was dishing for the throw and roll and spray injection patches. The results of survivability analyses also indicated that the patches installed using infrared had much longer expected life than those installed using the other two considered methods. The results of the cost analyses showed that the infrared method can be more cost-effective than the spray injection method when used for winter pothole patching. For short term repairs, the throw and roll method was found to cost less than the infrared method if the user cost were not considered. However, for permanent repairs, the infrared method can be more cost effective than throw and roll method. In summary, the tow-behind infrared heater/reclaimer was found to be an efficient and cost effective method for patching certain types of potholes as well as performing other pavement repairs. A strategy for its deployment in Ohio is provided in this report.

Public Roads

Public Roads PDF
Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 56.11 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Highway research
Languages : en
Pages :
View: 1197

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Pain Procedures In Clinical Practice E Book

Pain Procedures in Clinical Practice E Book PDF
Author: Ted A. Lennard
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 1437737749
Size: 20.24 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 656
View: 7668

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In the 3rd Edition of Pain Procedures in Clinical Practice, Dr. Ted Lennard helps you offer the most effective care to your patients by taking you through the various approaches to pain relief used in physiatry today. In this completely updated, procedure-focused volume, you’ll find nearly a decade worth of new developments and techniques supplemented by a comprehensive online video collection of how-to procedures at www.expertconsult.com. You’ll also find extensive coverage of injection options for every joint, plus discussions of non-injection-based pain relief options such as neuromuscular ultrasound, alternative medicines, and cryotherapy. Offer your patients today’s most advanced pain relief with nearly a decade worth of new developments and techniques, masterfully presented by respected physiatrist Ted Lennard, MD. Make informed treatment decisions and provide effective relief with comprehensive discussions of all of the injection options for every joint. Apply the latest non-injection-based treatments for pain relief including neuromuscular ultrasound, alternative medicines, and cryotherapy. See how to get the best results with a comprehensive video collection of how-to procedures at www.expertconsult.com, and access the complete text and images online.

Evaluation And Improvement Of Bituminous Maintenance Mixtures

Evaluation and Improvement of Bituminous Maintenance Mixtures PDF
Author: Cindy K. Estakhri
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 61.50 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Pavements, Asphalt
Languages : en
Pages : 136
View: 1844

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The objective of this study was to provide the Texas Department of Transportation with a means to assure quality of cold-applied asphalt stabilized maintenance mixtures. Samples of 17 different maintenance mixtures were obtained from across the state and 14 of these were stockpiled at Texas A&M's Riverside Campus. These materials were evaluated in terms of field aging and field workability. To evaluate the aging of the field materials, laboratory tests were performed to determine resilient moduli, tensile strength and extracted binder properties. Findings indicated that only minimal aging occurred in most of the mixtures in a six-month period. The workability of the stockpiled field materials was subjectively evaluated and compared to laboratory measurements aimed at quantifying workability. Comparisons of field ratings to laboratory measurements indicated that there was no clear relationship. Two test procedures were evaluated regarding their potential to quantify the workability of HMCL asphaltic mixtures: (1) a biaxial compression test, and (2) unconfined compression test. Test results indicated that both procedures provide a relatively good measure of workability. Two laboratory aging procedures were evaluated for their ability to predict workability of a stockpiled maintenance mixture after 6 months of stockpile aging. Test protocol and acceptance criteria were developed to estimate the relative ability of a maintenance mixture to retain adequate workability after outdoor stockpile storage.

Cohen S Pathways Of The Pulp Expert Consult E Book

Cohen s Pathways of the Pulp Expert Consult   E Book PDF
Author: Louis H. Berman
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 0323079075
Size: 16.28 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 992
View: 6249

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The definitive endodontics reference, Cohen’s Pathways of the Pulp is known for its comprehensive coverage of leading-edge information, materials, and techniques. It examines all aspects of endodontic care, from preparing the clinician and patient for endodontic treatment to the role the endodontist can play in the treatment of traumatic injuries and to the procedures used in the treatment of pediatric and older patients. Not only does Hargreaves and Cohen’s 10th edition add five chapters on hot new topics, it also includes online access! As an Expert Consult title, Cohen’s Pathways of the Pulp lets you search the entire contents of the book on your computer, and includes five online chapters not available in the printed text, plus videos, a searchable image collection, and more. For evidence-based endodontics research and treatment, this is your one-stop resource!

Pain Assessment And Pharmacologic Management E Book

Pain Assessment and Pharmacologic Management   E Book PDF
Author: Chris Pasero
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 0323082637
Size: 24.73 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 896
View: 2094

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Pain Assessment and Pharmacologic Management, by highly renowned authors Chris Pasero and Margo McCaffery, is destined to become the definitive resource in pain management in adults. It provides numerous reproducible tables, boxes, and figures that can be used in clinical practice, and emphasizes the benefits of a multimodal analgesic approach throughout. In addition, Patient Medication Information forms for the most commonly used medications in each analgesic group can be copied and given to patients. This title is an excellent resource for nurses to become certified in pain management. Presents best practices and evidence-based guidelines for assessing and managing pain most effectively with the latest medications and drug regimens. Features detailed, step-by-step guidance on effective pain assessment to help nurses appropriately evaluate pain for each patient during routine assessments. Provides reproducible tables, boxes, and figures that can be used in clinical practice. Contains Patient Medication Information forms for the most commonly used medications in each analgesic group, to be copied and given to patients. Offers the authors' world-renowned expertise in five sections: Underlying Mechanisms of Pain and the Pathophysiology of Neuropathic Pain includes figures that clearly illustrate nociception and classification of pain by inferred pathology. Assessment includes tools to assess patients who can report their pain as well as those who are nonverbal, such as the cognitively impaired and critically ill patients. Several pain-rating scales are translated in over 20 languages. Nonnopioids includes indications for using acetaminophen or NSAIDs, and the prevention and treatment of adverse effects. Opioids includes guidelines for opioid drug selection and routes of administration, and the prevention and treatment of adverse effects. Adjuvant Analgesics presents different types of adjuvant analgesics for a variety of pain types, including persistent (chronic) pain, acute pain, neuropathic pain, and bone pain. Prevention and treatment of adverse effects is also covered. Includes helpful Appendices that provide website resources and suggestions for the use of opioid agreements and for incorporating pain documentation into the electronic medical record. Covers patients from young adults to frail older adults. Provides evidence-based, practical guidance on planning and implementing pain management in accordance with current TJC guidelines and best practices. Includes illustrations to clarify concepts and processes such as the mechanisms of action for pain medications. Features spiral binding to facilitate quick reference.

Nursing Care Of Children E Book

Nursing Care of Children   E Book PDF
Author: Susan R. James
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 032329345X
Size: 40.72 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 880
View: 5811

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Master the art of caring for children with most effective, efficient, and affordable title on pediatric nursing care. Taking on a family focus, this student-friendly text teaches growth, development, and information on the major body system alterations. Plus, dramatically streamlined content and new learning tools make this new edition even more tailored to your learning needs. Expert reviews of chapter content ensure all chapters include current practices, terms, and updated information. Health Promotion boxes summarize information from the American Academy of Pediatrics to teach you how to perform a comprehensive assessment of well infants and children at various ages. Illustrated Procedure boxes include step-by-step instructions for common nursing tasks. Pathophysiology boxes explain changes in physiology that occur in a variety of diseases and disorders in children. Nursing process highlighted in nursing care plans and in-text discussions. Clinical Reference pages provide students with easy-to-find reference sections, including basic anatomy and physiology, pediatric differences, related laboratory and diagnostic tests, and commonly prescribed medications. Safety Alert boxes highlight patient safety as part of the QSEN initiative for better outcomes of nursing care. Updated Evidence-Based Practice boxes (formerly Using Research to Improve Practice) assist you in determining best practices in your future care of children. Patient-Centered Care boxes guide you in teaching the parents and child about self-care in the home and follow-up care in community-based health care settings. Streamlined Nursing Care Plans have been reformatted to make them easier to read and use. Updated photos throughout the book keep the text up-to-date and visually appealing. Key concepts are highlighted in the book and their definitions are provided in a glossary.