Estimating The Query Difficulty For Information Retrieval

Estimating the Query Difficulty for Information Retrieval PDF
Author: David Carmel
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 160845357X
Size: 43.38 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 77
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Many information retrieval (IR) systems suffer from a radical variance in performance when responding to users' queries. Even for systems that succeed very well on average, the quality of results returned for some of the queries is poor. Thus, it is desirable that IR systems will be able to identify "difficult" queries so they can be handled properly. Understanding why some queries are inherently more difficult than others is essential for IR, and a good answer to this important question will help search engines to reduce the variance in performance, hence better servicing their customer needs. Estimating the query difficulty is an attempt to quantify the quality of search results retrieved for a query from a given collection of documents. This book discusses the reasons that cause search engines to fail for some of the queries, and then reviews recent approaches for estimating query difficulty in the IR field. It then describes a common methodology for evaluating the prediction quality of those estimators, and experiments with some of the predictors applied by various IR methods over several TREC benchmarks. Finally, it discusses potential applications that can utilize query difficulty estimators by handling each query individually and selectively, based upon its estimated difficulty. Table of Contents: Introduction - The Robustness Problem of Information Retrieval / Basic Concepts / Query Performance Prediction Methods / Pre-Retrieval Prediction Methods / Post-Retrieval Prediction Methods / Combining Predictors / A General Model for Query Difficulty / Applications of Query Difficulty Estimation / Summary and Conclusions

Transforming Technologies To Manage Our Information

Transforming Technologies to Manage Our Information PDF
Author: William Jones
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1627050175
Size: 70.40 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 179
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With its theme, "Our Information, Always and Forever," Part I of this book covers the basics of personal information management (PIM) including six essential activities of PIM and six (different) ways in which information can be personal to us. Part I then goes on to explore key issues that arise in the "great migration" of our information onto the Web and into a myriad of mobile devices. Part 2 provides a more focused look at technologies for managing information that promise to profoundly alter our practices of PIM and, through these practices, the way we lead our lives. Part 2 is in five chapters: - Chapter 5. Technologies of Input and Output. Technologies in support of gesture, touch, voice, and even eye movements combine to support a more natural user interface (NUI). Technologies of output include glasses and "watch" watches. Output will also increasingly be animated with options to "zoom". - Chapter 6. Technologies to Save Our Information. We can opt for "life logs" to record our experiences with increasing fidelity. What will we use these logs for? And what isn’t recorded that should be? - Chapter 7. Technologies to Search Our Information. The potential for personalized search is enormous and mostly yet to be realized. Persistent searches, situated in our information landscape, will allow us to maintain a diversity of projects and areas of interest without a need to continually switch from one to another to handle incoming information. - Chapter 8. Technologies to Structure Our Information. Structure is key if we are to keep, find, and make effective use of our information. But how best to structure? And how best to share structured information between the applications we use, with other people, and also with ourselves over time? What lessons can we draw from the failures and successes in web-based efforts to share structure? - Chapter 9. PIM Transformed and Transforming: Stories from the Past, Present and Future. Part 2 concludes with a comparison between Licklider’s world of information in 1957 and our own world of information today. And then we consider what the world of information is likely to look like in 2057. Licklider estimated that he spent 85% of his "thinking time" in activities that were clerical and mechanical and might (someday) be delegated to the computer. What percentage of our own time is spent with the clerical and mechanical? What about in 2057?

Advances In Information Retrieval Theory

Advances in Information Retrieval Theory PDF
Author: Leif Azzopardi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642044174
Size: 56.21 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 386
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Theory of Information Retrieval, ICTIR 2009, held in Cambridge, UK, in September 2009. The 18 revised full papers, 14 short papers, and 11 posters presented together with one invited talk were carefully reviewed and selected from 82 submissions. The papers are categorized into four main themes: novel IR models, evaluation, efficiency, and new perspectives in IR. Twenty-one papers fall into the general theme of novel IR models, ranging from various retrieval models, query and term selection models, Web IR models, developments in novelty and diversity, to the modeling of user aspects. There are four papers on new evaluation methodologies, e.g., modeling score distributions, evaluation over sessions, and an axiomatic framework for XML retrieval evaluation. Three papers focus on the issue of efficiency and offer solutions to improve the tractability of PageRank, data cleansing practices for training classifiers, and approximate search for distributed IR. Finally, four papers look into new perspectives of IR and shed light on some new emerging areas of interest, such as the application and adoption of quantum theory in IR.

Advances In Information Retrieval

Advances in Information Retrieval PDF
Author: Giambattista Amati
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3540714960
Size: 51.45 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 759
View: 7683

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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 29th annual European Conference on Information Retrieval Research, ECIR 2007, held in Rome, Italy in April 2007. The papers are organized in topical sections on theory and design, efficiency, peer-to-peer networks, result merging, queries, relevance feedback, evaluation, classification and clustering, filtering, topic identification, expert finding, XML IR, Web IR, and multimedia IR.

Statistical Language Models For Information Retrieval

Statistical Language Models for Information Retrieval PDF
Author: Chengxiang Zhai
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1598295918
Size: 74.54 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 141
View: 5012

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As online information grows dramatically, search engines such as Google are playing a more and more important role in our lives. Critical to all search engines is the problem of designing an effective retrieval model that can rank documents accurately for a given query. This has been a central research problem in information retrieval for several decades. In the past ten years, a new generation of retrieval models, often referred to as statistical language models, has been successfully applied to solve many different information retrieval problems. Compared with the traditional models such as the vector space model, these new models have a more sound statistical foundation and can leverage statistical estimation to optimize retrieval parameters. They can also be more easily adapted to model non-traditional and complex retrieval problems. Empirically, they tend to achieve comparable or better performance than a traditional model with less effort on parameter tuning. This book systematically reviews the large body of literature on applying statistical language models to information retrieval with an emphasis on the underlying principles, empirically effective language models, and language models developed for non-traditional retrieval tasks. All the relevant literature has been synthesized to make it easy for a reader to digest the research progress achieved so far and see the frontier of research in this area. The book also offers practitioners an informative introduction to a set of practically useful language models that can effectively solve a variety of retrieval problems. No prior knowledge about information retrieval is required, but some basic knowledge about probability and statistics would be useful for fully digesting all the details. Table of Contents: Introduction / Overview of Information Retrieval Models / Simple Query Likelihood Retrieval Model / Complex Query Likelihood Model / Probabilistic Distance Retrieval Model / Language Models for Special Retrieval Tasks / Language Models for Latent Topic Analysis / Conclusions

Pervasive Computing And The Networked World

Pervasive Computing and the Networked World PDF
Author: Qiaohong Zu
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319092650
Size: 14.25 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 838
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This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Joint International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Web Society, ICPCA/SWS 2013, held in Vina de Mar, Chile, in December 2013. The 56 revised full papers presented together with 29 poster papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 156 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on infrastructure and devices; service and solution; data and knowledge; as well as community.

Language Modeling For Information Retrieval

Language Modeling for Information Retrieval PDF
Author: Bruce Croft
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402012167
Size: 15.30 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 246
View: 1915

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A statisticallanguage model, or more simply a language model, is a prob abilistic mechanism for generating text. Such adefinition is general enough to include an endless variety of schemes. However, a distinction should be made between generative models, which can in principle be used to synthesize artificial text, and discriminative techniques to classify text into predefined cat egories. The first statisticallanguage modeler was Claude Shannon. In exploring the application of his newly founded theory of information to human language, Shannon considered language as a statistical source, and measured how weH simple n-gram models predicted or, equivalently, compressed natural text. To do this, he estimated the entropy of English through experiments with human subjects, and also estimated the cross-entropy of the n-gram models on natural 1 text. The ability of language models to be quantitatively evaluated in tbis way is one of their important virtues. Of course, estimating the true entropy of language is an elusive goal, aiming at many moving targets, since language is so varied and evolves so quickly. Yet fifty years after Shannon's study, language models remain, by all measures, far from the Shannon entropy liInit in terms of their predictive power. However, tbis has not kept them from being useful for a variety of text processing tasks, and moreover can be viewed as encouragement that there is still great room for improvement in statisticallanguage modeling.

Information Retrieval Technology

Information Retrieval Technology PDF
Author: Asia Information Retrieval Symposium
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540291862
Size: 47.90 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 735
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second Asia Information Retrieval Symposium, AIRS 2005, held in Jeju Island, Korea, in October 2005. The 32 revised full papers and 36 revised poster papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 136 papers submitted. All current issues in information retrieval are addressed: applications, systems, technologies and theoretical aspects of information retrieval in text, audio, image, video and multi-media data. The papers are organized in topical sections on relevance/retrieval models, multimedia IR, natural language processing in IR, enabling technology, Web IR, question answering, document/query models, a special session: digital photo album, TDT/clustering, multimedia/classification, and two poster and demo sessions.

Advances In Information Retrieval

Advances in Information Retrieval PDF
Author: Cathal Gurrin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642122744
Size: 63.66 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 677
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 32nd annual European Conference on Information Retrieval Research, ECIR 2010, held in Milton Keynes, UK, in March 2010. The 44 revised full papers and 23 poster papers presented together with the keynote lecture, 5 tool demonstrations and the abstracts of 3 invited lectures were carefully reviewed and selected from 202 full research paper submissions and 73 poster/demo submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on NLP and text mining, Web IR, evaluation, multimedia IR, distributed IR and performance issues, IR theory and formal models, personalization and recommendation, domain-specific IR and CLIR, as well as user issues.

Issues In Advertising Mass Communication And Public Relations 2013 Edition

Issues in Advertising  Mass Communication  and Public Relations  2013 Edition PDF
Author:
Publisher: ScholarlyEditions
ISBN: 149011100X
Size: 38.85 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 210
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Issues in Advertising, Mass Communication, and Public Relations: 2013 Edition is a ScholarlyBrief™ that delivers timely, authoritative, comprehensive, and specialized information about Additional Research in a concise format. The editors have built Issues in Advertising, Mass Communication, and Public Relations: 2013 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Additional Research in this book to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Advertising, Mass Communication, and Public Relations: 2013 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Information Retrieval Evaluation

Information Retrieval Evaluation PDF
Author: Donna Harman
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1598299727
Size: 32.55 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 119
View: 526

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Evaluation has always played a major role in information retrieval, with the early pioneers such as Cyril Cleverdon and Gerard Salton laying the foundations for most of the evaluation methodologies in use today. The retrieval community has been extremely fortunate to have such a well-grounded evaluation paradigm during a period when most of the human language technologies were just developing. This lecture has the goal of explaining where these evaluation methodologies came from and how they have continued to adapt to the vastly changed environment in the search engine world today. The lecture starts with a discussion of the early evaluation of information retrieval systems, starting with the Cranfield testing in the early 1960s, continuing with the Lancaster "user" study for MEDLARS, and presenting the various test collection investigations by the SMART project and by groups in Britain. The emphasis in this chapter is on the how and the why of the various methodologies developed. The second chapter covers the more recent "batch" evaluations, examining the methodologies used in the various open evaluation campaigns such as TREC, NTCIR (emphasis on Asian languages), CLEF (emphasis on European languages), INEX (emphasis on semi-structured data), etc. Here again the focus is on the how and why, and in particular on the evolving of the older evaluation methodologies to handle new information access techniques. This includes how the test collection techniques were modified and how the metrics were changed to better reflect operational environments. The final chapters look at evaluation issues in user studies -- the interactive part of information retrieval, including a look at the search log studies mainly done by the commercial search engines. Here the goal is to show, via case studies, how the high-level issues of experimental design affect the final evaluations. Table of Contents: Introduction and Early History / "Batch" Evaluation Since 1992 / Interactive Evaluation / Conclusion