Bias And Causation

Bias and Causation PDF
Author: Dr. Herbert I. Weisberg
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118058206
Size: 58.42 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 348
View: 5316

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A one-of-a-kind resource on identifying and dealing with bias in statistical research on causal effects Do cell phones cause cancer? Can a new curriculum increase student achievement? Determining what the real causes of such problems are, and how powerful their effects may be, are central issues in research across various fields of study. Some researchers are highly skeptical of drawing causal conclusions except in tightly controlled randomized experiments, while others discount the threats posed by different sources of bias, even in less rigorous observational studies. Bias and Causation presents a complete treatment of the subject, organizing and clarifying the diverse types of biases into a conceptual framework. The book treats various sources of bias in comparative studies—both randomized and observational—and offers guidance on how they should be addressed by researchers. Utilizing a relatively simple mathematical approach, the author develops a theory of bias that outlines the essential nature of the problem and identifies the various sources of bias that are encountered in modern research. The book begins with an introduction to the study of causal inference and the related concepts and terminology. Next, an overview is provided of the methodological issues at the core of the difficulties posed by bias. Subsequent chapters explain the concepts of selection bias, confounding, intermediate causal factors, and information bias along with the distortion of a causal effect that can result when the exposure and/or the outcome is measured with error. The book concludes with a new classification of twenty general sources of bias and practical advice on how mathematical modeling and expert judgment can be combined to achieve the most credible causal conclusions. Throughout the book, examples from the fields of medicine, public policy, and education are incorporated into the presentation of various topics. In addition, six detailed case studies illustrate concrete examples of the significance of biases in everyday research. Requiring only a basic understanding of statistics and probability theory, Bias and Causation is an excellent supplement for courses on research methods and applied statistics at the upper-undergraduate and graduate level. It is also a valuable reference for practicing researchers and methodologists in various fields of study who work with statistical data. This book was selected as the 2011 Ziegel Prize Winner in Technometrics for the best book reviewed by the journal. It is also the winner of the 2010 PROSE Award for Mathematics from The American Publishers Awards for Professional and Scholarly Excellence

Epidemiology Kept Simple

Epidemiology Kept Simple PDF
Author: B. Burt Gerstman
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780471400288
Size: 62.62 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 417
View: 5842

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Designed specifically for non-epidemiologists, this volume aims to provide accessible information on the classical approach and the modern biostatistical approach to studying disease.

Introduction To Epidemiology

Introduction to Epidemiology PDF
Author: Ray M. Merrill
Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning
ISBN: 9780763735821
Size: 43.38 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 352
View: 5656

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An Introduction to Epidemiology, Fourth Edition is intended for introductory courses in health-related programs at both the advanced undergraduate and graduate levels. It is also a valuable reference for epidemiologists working in the field, industrial hygienists, infectious disease nurses, and staff epidemiologists.

Modern Epidemiology

Modern Epidemiology PDF
Author: Kenneth J. Rothman
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
ISBN: 9780781755641
Size: 59.98 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 758
View: 4528

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The thoroughly revised and updated Third Edition of the acclaimed Modern Epidemiology reflects both the conceptual development of this evolving science and the increasingly focal role that epidemiology plays in dealing with public health and medical problems. Coauthored by three leading epidemiologists, with sixteen additional contributors, this Third Edition is the most comprehensive and cohesive text on the principles and methods of epidemiologic research. The book covers a broad range of concepts and methods, such as basic measures of disease frequency and associations, study design, field methods, threats to validity, and assessing precision. It also covers advanced topics in data analysis such as Bayesian analysis, bias analysis, and hierarchical regression. Chapters examine specific areas of research such as disease surveillance, ecologic studies, social epidemiology, infectious disease epidemiology, genetic and molecular epidemiology, nutritional epidemiology, environmental epidemiology, reproductive epidemiology, and clinical epidemiology.

Perspectives On Causation

Perspectives on Causation PDF
Author: Richard Goldberg
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1847318266
Size: 36.48 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Law
Languages : en
Pages : 478
View: 6480

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The chapters in this volume arise from a conference held at the University of Aberdeen concerning the law of causation in the UK, Commonwealth countries, France and the USA. The distinguished group of international experts who have contributed to this book examine the ways in which legal doctrine in causation is developing, and how British law should seek to influence and be influenced by developments in other countries. As such, the book will serve as a focal point for the study of this important area of law. The book is organised around three themes - the black letter law, scientific evidence, and legal theory. In black letter law scholarship, major arguments have emerged about how legal doctrine will develop in cases involving indeterminate defendants and evidential gaps in causation. Various chapters examine the ways in which legal doctrine should develop over the next few years, in particular in England, Scotland, Canada and the USA, including the problem of causation in asbestos cases. In the area of scientific evidence, its role in the assessment of causation in civil litigation has never been greater. The extent to which such evidence can be admitted and used in causation disputes is controversial. This section of the book is therefore devoted to exploring the role of statistical evidence in resolving causation problems, including recent trends in litigation in the UK, USA, Australia and in France and the question of liability for future harm. In the legal theory area, the so-called NESS (necessary element in a sufficient set) test of causation is discussed and defended. The importance of tort law responding to developing science and observations from the perspective of precaution and indeterminate causation are also explored. The book will be of interest to legal academics, policy makers in the field, specialist legal practitioners, those in the pharmaceutical and bioscience sectors, physicians and scientists.

Handbook Of Causal Analysis For Social Research

Handbook of Causal Analysis for Social Research PDF
Author: Stephen L. Morgan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400760949
Size: 62.42 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 424
View: 1063

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What constitutes a causal explanation, and must an explanation be causal? What warrants a causal inference, as opposed to a descriptive regularity? What techniques are available to detect when causal effects are present, and when can these techniques be used to identify the relative importance of these effects? What complications do the interactions of individuals create for these techniques? When can mixed methods of analysis be used to deepen causal accounts? Must causal claims include generative mechanisms, and how effective are empirical methods designed to discover them? The Handbook of Causal Analysis for Social Research tackles these questions with nineteen chapters from leading scholars in sociology, statistics, public health, computer science, and human development.

Explanation In Causal Inference

Explanation in Causal Inference PDF
Author: Tyler VanderWeele
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199325871
Size: 75.58 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 706
View: 3228

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"A comprehensive book on methods for mediation and interaction. The only book to approach this topic from the perspective of causal inference. Numerous software tools provided. Easy-to-read and accessible. Examples drawn from diverse fields. An essential reference for anyone conducting empirical research in the biomedical or social sciences"--

Causality

Causality PDF
Author: Judea Pearl
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521773621
Size: 73.74 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 384
View: 1798

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Causality offers the first comprehensive coverage of causal analysis in many sciences, including recent advances using graphical methods. Pearl presents a unified account of the probabilistic, manipulative, counterfactual and structural approaches to causation, and devises simple mathematical tools for analyzing the relationships between causal connections and statistical associations. The book will facilitate the incorporation of causal analysis as an integral part of the standard curriculum in statistics, business, epidemiology, social science and economics. Causality will be of interest to professionals and students in the fields of statistics, artificial intelligence, philosophy, cognitive science, and the health and social sciences.

Cognition In Children

Cognition In Children PDF
Author: Usha Goswami
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1317774655
Size: 11.40 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 350
View: 3019

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This textbook aims to provide a selective, but representative, review of work in cognitive development, grouped around themes that are familiar from textbooks of adult cognition. The book focuses on the question of what develops, rather than on why it develops. The findings of a given experimental study what develops are generally fixed, but the interpretation of what particular findings mean why is fluid. Some of the experiments discussed in this book have alternative explanations, and every student interested in children's cognition is invited to develop their own ideas about what different studies mean.

Illness Behavior

Illness Behavior PDF
Author: Sean McHugh
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1468452576
Size: 75.67 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 442
View: 1852

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In August, 1985, the 2nd International Conference on Illness Behaviour was held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The first International Conference took place one year previous in Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. This book is based on the proceedings of the second conference. The purpose behind this conference was to facilitate the development of a single integrated model to account for illness experience and presentation. A major focus of the conference was to outline methodological issues related to current behaviour research. A multidiscipl~nary approach was emphasized because of the bias that collaborative efforts are likely to be the most successful in achieving greater understanding of illness behaviour. Significant advances in our knowledge are occurring in all areas of the biological and social sciences, albeit more slowly in the latter areas. Marked specialization in each of these areas has lead to greater difficulty in integrating new knowledge with that of other areas and the development of a meaningful cohesive model to which all can relate. Thus there is a major need for forums such as that provided by this conference.

Event History Analysis

Event History Analysis PDF
Author: Kazuo Yamaguchi
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1452215650
Size: 32.59 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 182
View: 5248

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This book provides a systematic introduction to models, methods and applications of event history analysis. Yamaguchi emphasizes 'hands on' information, including the use and misuse of samples, models and covariates in applications, the structural arrangement of input data, the specification of various models in such computer programs as SAS-LOGIST and SPSSX-LOGLINEAR, and the interpretation of parameters estimated from models. The book also explores such significant topics as missing data, hazard rate, Cox's partial likelihood model, survivor function, and discrete-time logit models.

Informality Among Formal Firms

Informality Among Formal Firms PDF
Author: Roberta Gatti
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN:
Size: 28.72 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Informal sector (Economics)
Languages : en
Pages : 35
View: 2493

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The authors use firm-level, cross-county data from Investment Climate surveys in 49 developing countries to investigate an important channel through which informality can affect productivity: access to credit and external finance. Informality is measured as self-reported lack of tax compliance in a sample of registered firms that also answered questions on a large set of other characteristics. The authors find that more tax compliance is significantly associated with more access to credit both in OLS and in country fixed effects estimates. In particular, the link between credit and formality is stronger in high-formality countries. This suggests that firms' balance sheets are relatively more informative for financial institutions in environments where signal extraction is a less noisy process. The authors' results are robust to the inclusion of a wide array of correlates and to two-stage estimation.